Tag Archives: Social Isolation

Question?: Autism Symptoms In 7 Year Old

Chris asks…

what is autisme exactly about?

i have a sister, she cannot talk even she’s 7 yearold. some doctor said that she is hyperactive, but, other said that she is autisme. what is autisme exactly about? i’m very confused!!!

admin answers:

Autism -brain disorder that often interferes with a person’s ability to communicate with and relate to others.

Signs of autism almost always develop before a child is 3 years old, the condition is sometimes not diagnosed until later. Parents first become concerned when they notice that their toddler does not begin to talk or does not respond and interact like other children of the same age. Toddlers with autism do not usually develop speech normally and may seem to be deaf although hearing tests are normal.

Autism also affects how a child perceives and processes sensory information.

Severity of autism varies. Some ppl need assistance in almost all aspects of their daily lives, while others are able to function at a very high level and can even attend school in a regular classroom. This is a lifelong condition that uaually results in some degree of social isolation, treatment can make a major difference in the lives of people with autism. Early diagnosis and comprehensive treatment has resulted in increasing numbers of people with autism being able to live independently as adults..

What causes autism?
Autism tends to run in families, suggesting a genetic link. Because people with autism can be vastly different, scientists suspect a number of genes are responsible. Ongoing research is targeted at pinpointing these genes. Some experts also believe that environmental factors may play a part in causing autism, although scientists have studied several factors, including vaccines, and have yet to identify such a cause.

Brain scans of people with autism have shown abnormalities in several areas of the brain, including those responsible for emotion and social relations. Other studies suggest that people with autism have high levels of the neurotransmitter serotonin, a chemical that sends messages in the brain. However, these findings are preliminary, and ongoing studies seek to explain the brain and autism.1

What are the symptoms?
All people with autism have difficulty with social interactions and relationships. Parents often describe their child with autism as preferring to play alone and making little eye contact with other people. Other symptoms of autism include:

Difficulties with verbal and nonverbal communication. Language development in children with autism is almost always delayed.
Limited, repetitive, and overused (stereotyped) patterns of behavior, interests, and play. Many typical behaviors-such as repetitive body rocking, unusual attachments to objects, and holding fast to routines and rituals-are driven by the need for sameness and resistance to change.
There is no “typical” person with autism. Although autism is defined by the above characteristics, people with autism can have many different combinations of behaviors in mild to severe forms.

Do any other conditions occur with autism?
Although it is difficult to determine, studies show that below-normal intelligence occurs in about 70% of children with autism.2 Teenagers with autism often become depressed and have increased anxiety, especially if they have average or above-average intelligence. In addition, about a third of children with autism develop a seizure disorder (such as epilepsy) by their teen years.3

How is autism diagnosed?
Your health professional will use diagnostic guidelines, established by the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (AACAP), to determine whether your child has core symptoms.4 A child may also have hearing and other tests to make sure developmental delays aren’t the result of another condition with similar symptoms. Early diagnosis and treatment of autism is important to make the most of the child’s potential.

How is it treated?
Behavioral training, speech and occupational therapy, and parent education and support can often improve a child’s problem behaviors, communication skills, and socialization. Medications are sometimes helpful as well. A child with autism responds best to a highly structured, specialized educational program tailored to his or her individual needs. However, specific treatment varies depending on the range of individual symptoms, which can combine in many different ways and change over time.

Parents, school staff, and health professionals are usually all involved in planning a child’s treatment.

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Question?: Asperger Syndrome Treatment

William asks…

Can Aspergers Syndrome affect your Social health?

My therapist, mother, and father all suspect i have Aspergers Syndrome, but can it really affect your socializing? As well as A.D.D. and OCD? We all suspect i have all 3. And i’m feeling really depressed right know, so do you think so?

admin answers:

Yes, Asperger’s syndrome affects socializing, as it causes people to have poor social skills and a limited ability to develop good social skills.

Asperger’s syndrome varies a lot in severity though, so not everyone who has it will have the same level of difficulties with socializing.

Some people have mild Asperger’s syndrome and in those cases other people may not always notice much difference. Others have more severe forms of Asperger’s syndrome and cannot as easily mask or hide the disorder or the symptoms.

Some people with Asperger’s syndrome are lucky and are surrounded with people who don’t let the person’s poor social skills be a big problem, but a lot of people with Asperger’s syndrome are not that lucky and are constantly excluded and rejected by other people because of their poor social skills or simply for being different.

Many people with Asperger’s syndrome live in social isolation. Some of them don’t mind it and actually enjoy their solitary lives, while others are greatly bothered by this isolation and become really depressed.

I cannot judge whether you have Asperger’s or not, but it sounds like there is a reason to have a professional (a psychiatrist for example) do an evaluation to find out for sure. If you do have some disorder (or a combination of many disorders), a psychiatrist should be able to diagnose you and suggest treatment options.

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Question?: Schizophrenia Symptoms

William asks…

What are the early symptoms of schizophrenia?

What age do the symptoms of schizophrenia usually appear? What are the chances of someone being schizophrenic if they have no known family history of it? And any other important information about schizophrenia that you have please.

admin answers:

Social Isolation
Depression
Mood Swings
Obsessive Compulsive Behavior
Anxiety
Difficulty making decisions
Poor concentration
The chance for the general population is 1%
email me if you have more questions evilfudge17@yahoo.com

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Question?: Asperger Syndrome Causes

Robert asks…

How many know about Aspergers Syndrome?

I am wondering how many people out her know about aspergers syndrome. If you do then please elaborate on how you came to know and if you don’t then please explain why it has never come up. Thankyou for your time.

admin answers:

I had a friend who’s son has aspergers syndrome and as i always do, (i’m very inquisitive) i looked it up on the web.
READ:
Asperger’s Disorder is a milder variant of Autistic Disorder. Both Asperger’s Disorder and Autistic Disorder are in fact subgroups of a larger diagnostic category. This larger category is called either Autistic Spectrum Disorders, mostly in European countries, or Pervasive Developmental Disorders (“PDD”), in the United States. In Asperger’s Disorder, affected individuals are characterized by social isolation and eccentric behavior in childhood. There are impairments in two-sided social interaction and non-verbal communication. Though grammatical, their speech is peculiar due to abnormalities of inflection and a repetitive pattern. Clumsiness is prominent both in their articulation and gross motor behavior. They usually have a circumscribed area of interest which usually leaves no space for more age appropriate, common interests. Some examples are cars, trains, French Literature, door knobs, hinges, cappucino, meteorology, astronomy or history. The name “Asperger” comes from Hans Asperger, an Austrian physician who first described the syndrome in 1944. An excellent translation of Dr. Asperger’s original paper is provided by Dr. Uta Frith in her Autism and Asperger Syndrome.

DSM-IV DIAGNOSTIC CRITERIA FOR ASPERGER’S DISORDER

A.Qualitative impairment in social interaction, as manifested by at least two of the following:

(1) marked impairment in the use of multiple nonverbal behaviors such as eye-to-eye gaze, facial expression, body postures, and gestures to regulate social interaction
(2) failure to develop peer relationships appropriate to developmental level
(3) a lack of spontaneous seeking to share enjoyment, interests, or achievements with other people (e.g., by a lack of showing, bringing, or pointing out objects of interest to other people)
(4) lack of social or emotional reciprocity

B.Restricted repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior, interests, and activities, as manifested by at least one of the following:

(1) encompassing preoccupation with one or more stereotyped and restricted patterns of interest that is abnormal either in intensity or focus
(2) apparently inflexible adherence to specific, nonfunctional routines or rituals
(3) stereotyped and repetitive motor mannerisms (e.g., hand or finger flapping or twisting, or complex whole-body movements)
(4) persistent preoccupation with parts of objects

C.The disturbance causes clinically significant impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning.

D.There is no clinically significant general delay in language (e.g., single words used by age 2 years, communicative phrases used by age 3 years).

E.There is no clinically significant delay in cognitive development or in the development of age-appropriate self-help skills, adaptive behavior (other than in social interaction), and curiosity about the environment in childhood.

F.Criteria are not met for another specific Pervasive Developmental Disorder or Schizophrenia.

At least two of the following)
(a) inability to interact with peers
(b) lack of desire to interact with peers
(c) lack of appreciation of social cues
(d) socially and emotionally inappropriate behavior

2.All-absorbing narrow interest
(at least one of the following)
(a) exclusion of other activities
(b) repetitive adherence
(c) more rote than meaning

3.Imposition of routines and interests
(at least one of the following)
(a) on self, in aspects of life
(b) on others

4.Speech and language problems
(at least three of the following)
(a) delayed development
(b) superficially perfect expressive language
(c) formal, pedantic language
(d) odd prosody, peculiar voice characteristics
(e) impairment of comprehension including misinterpretations of literal/implied meanings

5.Non-verbal communication problems
(at least one of the following)
(a) limited use of gestures
(b) clumsy/gauche body language
(c) limited facial expression
(d) inappropriate expression
(e) peculiar, stiff gaze

6.Motor clumsiness: poor performance on neurodevelopmental examination

(All six criteria must be met for confirmation of diagnosis.)

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Motivating Autistic Children With a Variety of Activities

For those parents of autistic children, you are probably aware of how to motivate the child by employing a variety of activities. However, if your child has just been diagnosed with Autism you are most likely not aware of this as you may not have had the time yet to educated yourself about how this affects the individual. Children as well as teenagers and adults with Autism have a great deal of difficulty conversing and interacting with others while also having impaired communication skills.

In order to help autistic children develop behavioral, language, and social skills, you have to find ways of motivating them to pay attention and learn from this. The key to developing certain life skills may be an early intervention, but these have become easier to teach thanks to the help of some newer motivational methods that are now available. The following are some suggestions for how to motivate autistic children by employing a variety of activities to accomplish this.

Use play therapy that encourages self-expression, provides a sense of accomplishment, and teaches skills to motivate children with Autism.

Allow autistic children to choose the activity they want to engage in such as dancing or jumping and then be sure that you participate in these activities with them. Keep participating with them in these different activities until they communicate with you spontaneously and make eye contact.

Activites involving scripting or “social stories” should be encouraged as it oftentimes helps the non-verbal child with Autism to become more verbal while learning more appropriate behavioral skills. This also helps to improve their communication skills and has the tendency to decrease social isolation.

Employ positive reinforcement during their learning periods and therapy sessions in order to keep communication going. Praising correct answers or prompting another answer after an incorrect one is an excellent way to motivate them into responding more frequently.

Introduce new drills and tasks while still using familiar ones in order to make learning more fun and interesting. Granted, routine and structure are essential to providing autistic children with a comfort zone and teaching them numerous skills. However, Autism studies have revealed that when tasks are interesting and varied, autistic children are better behaved, give more correct answers, learn quicker, and stay more focused.

Incorporate activities that involve sensory integration. These will decrease or increase the level of sensory stimulation that autistic children receive. When a child with Autism is overwhelmed with sensory input, occupational therapists help them to participate in certain activities that help them to filter the amount of sensory input they are receiving.

Finally, children with Autism can also be motivated by employing music therapy and singing. In some cases, autistic children who cannot speak a single word can sing when they are exposed to tunes with repetitive and simple lyrics or phrases. This actually helps them to develop language skills that are lacking while at the same time helping them to eliminate those monotone speech patterns that are so common with autistic children.

For the latest videos and training information on child development as well as books and curricula on Autism please visit childdevelopmentmedia.com.

View the original article here

Characteristics Of High Functioning Autism

High functioning autism is on the higher end of the autism spectrum disorder scale. The symptoms of autism are still present but to lesser degree.

 The characteristics of high functioning autism are often confused with asperger syndrome because of the close similarities.

 However there is one vital difference in the two diagnoses with asperger syndrome there is no delay in language development, where as in high functioning autism there is.

 There is however still no official diagnosis of high functioning autism and the condition is still being confused and often referred to as asperger syndrome.

 The high functioning autism individual will normally have an average or above average intelligence.

 The characteristics of high functioning autism include:

 Motor delays

Social deficits

Communication deficits

Obsessive interests

Sensory issues

They display a poor use of language.

 One of the main differences to autism spectrum disorder is that individuals with high functioning autism will normally want to be social and have friends; where as autistic individuals show no interest in socializing.

 Even though individuals with high functioning autism do desire social interaction they still have the same social deficits as those with autism spectrum disorder.

 They lack the ability to read facial expression or body language, lack the ability to understand humor and find reading other peoples feelings difficult. Which can make them socially isolated and often make them the subjects of bullying and taunts.

 This unwanted social isolation and sometimes bullying can lead to anxieties and depression.

 An individual with high functioning autism can become aggressive as a result of the social isolation not understanding why they are the butt of this social isolation, taunting and bullying.

 A good point to remember is a normally developing youngster will learn social skills through family, peers and their environment. An autistic individual will not, this is the same for the high functioning individual.

 Therefore social skills need to be taught and reenforced. The best method for this is using something called social skills stories. These valuable autism resources can be like throwing an autistic individual a life line.

 The high functioning individual can use the autism social skills story to help them develop social skills making them socially accepted, therefore relieving the anxiety, stress and ultimately easing depression.

 Implementing autism social skills stories has never been easier with the internet. Autism social skills stories can be downloaded directly and used for all situations the high functioning autistic individual is struggling with.

 Immediate download of autism social skills stories specifically for high functioning autistic individuals can be found at:

 www.autismscoailstories.com/high_functioing_autistic_aggression

autism social skills stories are used for a wide variety of situations to help autistic individulas find coping methods for social skills they are struggling with
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Preparing your autistic teen for puberty using social stories as a strategy

The teenage years are for most of us probably our most social years. However if your autistic they can be the most confusing.

Many parents of autistic teenagers struggle to find methods to help their child cope with this stage in their life. As a youngster people are far more forgiving of odd behaviors but as your autistic child grows the odd behaviors will become more apparent and can make them the butt of jokes and lead to social isolation.

Social skills stories as a strategy offers teenagers on the autism spectrum no matter what their ability level, help and coping strategies through the transition into adolescents and adulthood.

Many parents of autistic teenagers recommend that preparing your autistic teen for puberty using social stories as a strategy is beneficial and have seen positive results.

Using social skills stories gives your autistic teen clear examples of positive behaviors and skills, practical step by step plans, are supportive and visually rich.

The social skills stories are used for all topics and issues related to adolescence such as puberty and hygiene, graduation, relationships, and other related issues.

Written in first person text and following carefully structured formulas social stories work well. Research suggest preparing your autistic teen for puberty using social stories as a strategy can ease tensions and anxieties in the autistic teenager making skills easier to master and remember.

To download social skills stories for autistic teenagers on various topics such as puberty, menstruation, hygiene, social kissing, swearing plus more visit:

http://www.autismsocialstories.com/autistic_teens

Plus read more information on how social skills stories for autistic teenagers can be implemented and for immediate download of 45 social stories as a strategy visit: http://www.autismsocialstories.com/autistic_teens

http://www.autismsocialstories.com/asperger_adolescents

Preparing your autistic teen for puberty using social stories as a strategy.
Social stories have been used for many years as a strategy for teaching and enforcing positive social skills and behaviors.
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All About Aspergers Syndrome

If your child has recently been diagnosed with Aspergers Syndrome, then you likely have more questions than answers about this little-known diagnosis.

This article presents answers to some of parents’ most common questions about Aspergers Syndrome.

What IS Aspergers Syndrome?

Aspergers Syndrome, named for Hans Asperger, an Austrian physician, is a milder form of autistic disorder. Both conditions are part of a larger group of neurological disorders known in the US as Pervasive Developmental Disorders, or PDD for short. The 2 most common symptoms are eccentric behavior and self-imposed social isolation. Sometimes speech is affected as well as gait and motor skills. Your child may also be exclusively focused on a particular area of interest, such as cars or astronomy. The social isolation comes from the child wanting to know everything about his or her area of interest and little else. Conversations are usually focused only on that area as well.

What causes Aspergers Syndrome?

Experts believe that Aspergers and autism have underlying biological causes, but are not clear yet on what those causes are. They do know that there are certain brain structure abnormalities, but do not know why they occur.

How are Aspergers Syndrome and autism different?

Aspergers usually begins later in childhood and has a more hopeful outlook. The child tends to function at a higher level with Aspergers too. Aspergers children tend to be clumsy, but overall have less neurological deficits than autistic children.

How does the doctor know for sure that my child has Aspergers Syndrome?

Diagnosis of most any mental/emotional disorder tends to be one of ruling out other conditions and noting certain patterns of behavior. There is no definitive test for Aspergers, but there are certain patterns, including:

Significant impairment in social interaction, as demonstrated by: – impaired nonverbal communication – failure to develop age-appropriate peer relationships – lack of shared enjoyment of activities/surroundings with others – unable to reciprocate socially and/or emotionally
Repeated patterns of behavior or interest, such as: – abnormal intensity of interest in one or two specific areas – rigid rituals that serve no functional purpose – repetitive mannerisms, such as hand or finger flapping – persistently preoccupied with parts of objects
Significant impairment in developmental areas of functioning (social, occupational and other areas)
No significant delay in language
No significant delay in cognitive development or learning of age-appropriate self-care skills

If your child meets one or more of the above criteria, then your doctor may suspect Aspergers.

Is my child crazy or mentally ill?

Aspergers Syndrome in and of itself is not a mental illness; it is a developmental disorder. However, it is fairly commonly associated with the following conditions:

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD)
Depression
Bipolar Disorder
Generalized Anxiety Disorder
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD)

How is Aspergers Syndrome treated?

There aren’t any treatments for Aspergers that will make it “go away.” However, by using a combination of approaches that address the three core symptoms of the disorder (poor communication skills, obsessive or repetitive routines and physical clumsiness); you can help your child live a fairly normal life. It’s also important to start treatment as early as possible. The treatment approaches your doctor recommends may include:

Psychotherapy
Parent education & training
Behavior modification
Social skills training
Educational interventions
Medications, such as stimulants, mood stabilizers, antidepressants, and SSRIs

Is there any cure for Aspergers Syndrome?

Unfortunately, there is no cure for this condition, and children do not “grow out” of it either. It is likely that your child will always find social situations and personal relationships to be challenging. But many adults with Aspergers are able to live healthy, productive lives, although they may always need support to do so.

What do I need to do as a parent of a child with Aspergers Syndrome?

The most important thing you can do is to get your child into a treatment regime early and then stick with it, even during the tough times. It will be worth it in the long run if you take steps to support your child’s progress and help him or her adjust and adapt. You can serve as case manager or coordinator, and try to involve all of your child’s caregivers in treatment as much as you can. You should teach your child self-help skills as he/she grows and develops. Look for treatment and educational programs that address your child’s problem areas. Get support for yourself too. You won’t be at your best with your child if you’re exhausted and frustrated.

Hopefully, these answers have addressed some of your most pressing questions. To learn more, search for information on the Web at reputable sites or look for a book at your local bookstore. Also, talk with your pediatrician and never be afraid to keep asking questions until you get answers you can understand.

For more Aspergers Articles by Ian Williamson please visit http://www.real-articles.com/Category/Add/212
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Want Know About Aspergers Syndrome?

Aspergers Syndrome may be a type of autism and it will also be thought of as Asperger’s Disorder or merely Aspergers. Aspergers syndrome and Autism can be thought of as 2 elements of a larger spectrum of disorders, known as the Pervasive Developmental Disorders or Autistic Spectrum Disorders. All of these so called disorders are marked by a most popular incapability to suitably Communicate and relate to world around the diagnosed individual.

Aspergers syndrome is distinguished by seemingly peculiar actions, unusual speech patterns or conduct, and social isolation or an inability to fit it. Children and adults suffering from this disorder have trouble communicating properly with others, particularly non-verbally. They may miss or misunderstand social cues, they will not perceive which means of few words or sentences in some of the conversations, or use a difficult to understand speech pattern. They can usually repeat words or bound sounds frequently while speaking, or use strange inflection.

Clumsiness is another common sign of Aspergers. Like folks suffering from Autism, fine motor skills can be impaired. Hand to eye coordination will also be impaired, leading to further isolation, especially for children. Persons who live with Aspergers usually have a terribly specific interest that consumes all of their attention and time, which may not seem appropriate for their age or create sense to anyone else. An Aspergers child might be obsessive about the intricate details of stock market trading, though they’re unable to grasp other basic skills.

Aspergers Syndrome is usually easier to house and live with than Autism or other related disorders. There are a few things that differentiate Aspergers from high functioning Autism. People with Asperger syndrome typically have a better outlook for general integration into society. Their issues with social interaction and communication are less severe, and their verbal skills are typically over their performance skills. They are more possible to have a single consuming interest, while autistic people might or may not. Finally, there’s much less of a link between Aspergers and other neurological disorders, as there’s with Autism.

While Aspergers syndrome is sometimes noticed and diagnosed in kids, several adults may also have it but might be unaware. It was officially discovered by Dr. Asperger in 1944, however only within the past three decades has it been researched and better understood. The reason for Aspergers and Autism is not however known, and treatment remains mostly behavioural. However it is possible to teach children and adults laid low with the disorder to have better social skills and adapt to traditional life.

If you want to know what is Aspergers Syndrome, then visit http://www.parentingaspergerscommunity.com and take guidance from Dave Angel. Dave Angel is an experienced social employee and has assisted literally tons of families around the world who have children with Aspergers. He is the author of the best-selling ebook “The Parenting Aspergers Resource Guide” and has several websites for parents of children with Aspergers.
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Teaching Communication Skills to a Child Diagnosed With Asperger’s Syndrome

Asperger’s Syndrome is a milder variant of Autistic Disorder. In Asperger’s Disorder, affected individuals are characterized by social isolation and eccentric behavior in childhood. Though grammatical, their speech is peculiar due to abnormalities of inflection and a repetitive pattern. They usually have a circumscribed area of interest which usually leaves no space for more age appropriate, common interests. Some examples are cars, trains, door knobs, hinges. The name “Asperger” comes from Hans Asperger, an Austrian physician who first described the syndrome in 1944.

If a child is showing symptoms of Asperger’s Disorder because highly visual thinking is interfering with the ability to generate language fluently then we may have child who is suffering from a very trainable communication disorder rather than a psychiatric disease.

Children who are highly visual with communication problems can have as many as 50 symptoms that are very similar and predictable. I call these children Maverick Minds.

To begin working on improving language and communication, we start with teaching visual attention skills.

In my consulting practice I teach parents methods for improving attention, memory and communication skills to replace many of the off-target behaviors they have.

Before we begin teaching attention we do an evaluation to determine if the child is naturally turning to visual attention and memory skills rather than the auditory-verbal counterparts.

When I build exercises to teach attention I use the natural strengths of each child so that each exercise is easy, fun, and successful because it is critical that emerging communication abilities feel natural and flow fluently. To see my examples of children learning to become symptom-free go to my ebrainlabs website and watch the videos in our video viewing studio. You will see parents y using a pace and methods that result in success. The goals of the exercises are to help your child improve daily and achieve at least 80% success consistently.

We evaluate the “just-right” difficulty level to begin the exercise so that we understand how your child learns best. There are only two rules for the pace of learning:

•You and your child should be having lots of fun.

•Your child should always be 80% correct or better.

In our seminars, we discuss how we build the visual attention system first because it is the stronger system and is often shutting down verbal development. For this reason we begin our training with very little talking, which is one step toward stopping the antagonism between the visual and verbal systems and initiate a supportive relationship. Thus, we want you to minimize your talking during the exercises. As a

result, your child will be able to isolate the visual attention system and begin to load

visual memory. The more you talk, the more you reduce visual memory capacity. So by talking during this training, you could reduce your child’s capacity from 200 data bytes to 25.

As you work, you’ll establish a tri-level sequencer. The sequencer is another important

brain function that is the engine of the verbal thinking pathway and the most underused component of verbal biology. The sequencer is often very painful for autistic children so initially you teach it as a “treat,” or what feels like a reward.

The parts of the sequencer are:

Continuous – After every correct answer, ping a penny into a cup. Feedback that occurs after every correct answer facilitates rapid learning.

Fixed-ratio – After every three pennies, give your child a treat such as a sticker, a raisin, or a chocolate chip. Fixed-ratio sequencers begin the process of self control.

Variable – At the end of your session, go on a treasure hunt with your child. Hide clues around the house that lead to a surprise under the pillow. Varying the elements of the treasure hunt helps your child transfer learning and generalize it to daily life.

As you work, you’ll begin to vary your sequencers to increase the flexibility of this component of training. After you have used pennies, raisins and a treasure hunt, for example, you might change to printing out a picture of a desired toy and cutting it into pieces. Then, you can have your child earn pennies, stickers, and then a piece of the puzzle. Tape the piece on the wall. When the picture is complete, go to the store to buy the toy.

You can also vary the elements of each part of the sequencer, depending on your child’s needs. For example, you could change the Continuous to macaroni, marbles, poker chips, or small post-it notes. You could change the Fixed Ratio to tickles, chocolate chips, pretzels, stickers, or nickels. Or you might change the Variable to

coupons for privileges. The goal is to keep your child interested and challenged, and to have lots of fun.

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Learn more by calling 1-866-865-9820 or emailing me at support@cheriflorance.com

Cheri L. Florance, Ph.D. is a world renowned expert on the brain and communication. Dr. Florance has doctoral degrees in Speech and Hearing Science and Psychology, and a 5 year post doctoral degree in Brain Science from the National Institutes of Health. Her scientific achievements have been recognized by The White House, US Office of Education and US Rehabilitation Commission. She has been interviewed by Oprah, on the cover of USA Today and featured in numerous articles and television shows.
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