Tag Archives: Severe Anxiety

Question?: Autism Signs And Symptoms

John asks…

How many people have children with Autism?

Any type of autism on the spectrum. This is for a project at school. Just tell me about your experiences with Autistic (or Asperger’s) Children

admin answers:

1 in 88 children have autism (1 in 54 boys) 3/4 of children with autism are boys, the fourth is a girl. “classic” or “full blown autism” can be directed by the age of 2, warning signs are lack of eye contact, little or no speech, and a lack of other communication skills.

Asperger’s syndrome is a “high functioning” form of autism- meaning it shares the same basis of lacking communication skills with classic autism, but symptoms are far more severe.

I am a teen with asperger’s syndrome, and my main symptoms are severe anxiety, not knowing what to say in a conversation, having obsessions or fixations on things like trains, air planes, & computers, and no eye contact (this is due to anxiety). Most kids with mild autism also have other learning disabilities, like ADHD.

There is also a thing a lot of autistic people do called “stimming” It means self stimulation. You might see autistic kids doing things like rocking back and forth (it’s soothing) and flapping their hands, (I do this when excited).

One important thing to know about autistic individuals often are very proud to have autism, even though it is viewed by others as a disability. THERE IS NO CURE. But certain therapies DO help, like physical therapy, talk therapy, and social skills help.

THIS SHOULD JUST ABOUT SUM UP YOUR PROJECT!

Powered by Yahoo! Answers

In Mouse Model Of Rett Syndrome, Bone Marrow Transplant Arrests Symptoms

Main Category: Autism
Also Included In: Pediatrics / Children’s Health;  Neurology / Neuroscience;  Transplants / Organ Donations
Article Date: 19 Mar 2012 – 2:00 PDT

email icon email to a friend   printer icon printer friendly   write icon opinions  

4 and a half starsnot yet rated
A paper published online in Nature describes the results of using bone marrow transplant (BMT) to replace faulty immune system cells in models of Rett Syndrome. The procedure arrested many severe symptoms of the childhood disorder, including abnormal breathing and movement, and significantly extended the lifespan of Rett mouse models. Exploring the function of microglia deficient in methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (Mecp2), the protein encoded by the “Rett gene,” principal investigator Jonathan Kipnis, Ph.D. and his team at the University of Virginia School of Medicine uncovered a completely novel approach to this devastating neurological syndrome. The work was funded by the Rett Syndrome Research Trust and the Rett Syndrome Research Trust UK.

Rett Syndrome, the most physically disabling of the autism spectrum disorders, is caused by random mutations in the gene MECP2. Predominantly affecting girls, symptoms usually manifest between 6 and 18 months of age, when a frightening regression begins. Children lose acquired language skills and functional hand use; movement deteriorates as other Rett symptoms appear. These may include disordered breathing, Parkinsonian tremors, severe anxiety, seizures, digestive and circulatory problems and a range of autonomic nervous system and orthopedic abnormalities Although most children survive to adulthood, many are wheelchair-bound, rely on feeding tubes, are unable to communicate and require total, lifelong care.

Kipnis was drawn to Rett Syndrome from his perspective as a neuroimmunologist. “What began as intellectual curiosity,” he explains, “has become an intense personal commitment to studying the correlation between neurological function and the immune system in Rett Syndrome. The impact of BMT on so many different symptoms has triggered a flood of experiments we are now pursuing at full speed.”

The brain is largely comprised of several types of glial cells, which have diverse and complex functions that include sustaining a healthy environment for neuronal growth and maintenance. Microglia are small glial cells that participate in the brain’s immune response. One of their roles is to clean up normal cellular debris in the brain through the process of phagocytosis. Kipnis and his team discovered that when microglia lack properly functioning Mecp2, they are unable to perform this crucial duty efficiently. Because microglia are derived from immune progenitor cells, it is possible to replace them via a bone marrow transplant.

First author Noël Derecki and his colleagues began their work with male Rett mouse models, which lack any Mecp2. These Mecp2-null mice mimic the human disorder, with neurological symptoms beginning to appear at about 4 weeks of age and an approximate life expectancy of only 8 weeks. Radiation treatment was administered at 4 weeks, followed by a bone marrow transplant from normal (wild-type) mice. As engraftment – the migration and repopulation of new microglia – took place, the Rett mice began to grow instead of fail. Body and brain sizes approached those of wild-type mice, gait improved and mobility increased significantly. There were no signs of the severe tremors seen in untreated mice. Apneas and other breathing irregularities were markedly diminished. The oldest of these mice is now almost a year. Work with female Rett mouse models at more advanced stages of disease is currently underway.

Gail Mandel, Ph.D., whose Rett research focuses on astrocytes, another type of glial cell impaired by mutations in MECP2, comments, “A fascinating aspect of these findings is the data suggesting that deficits in the engulfing properties of microglia are a crucial aspect of Rett neuropathology. It will now be necessary to develop cellular assays to determine all the ways these immune cells are bolstering neuronal functions and whether they can be therapeutically harnessed.” Dr. Mandel is a Senior Scientist at the Vollum Institute and a Professor in the Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology in the School of Medicine at Oregon Health & Science University and an Investigator of the Howard Hughes Medical Institute.

Monica Coenraads, Executive Director of the Rett Syndrome Research Trust added, “I’ve been in almost daily contact with Dr. Kipnis since he brought his very original proposal to RSRT, and have been amazed to see the development of this brutal disease stopped in its tracks. A question that arises, of course, is whether replacing faulty immune cells with healthy microglia through bone marrow transplant would arrest or ameliorate already existing symptoms in humans. We do know of a case in which a girl with Rett Syndrome who was treated for leukemia gained considerable communication skills after a bone marrow transplant, and was able to converse with her mother for the first time in their lives. RSRT is in the process of exploring bone marrow transplant as a treatment modality, with full awareness of the serious nature of such a trial. In research, we are risk-takers. In clinical application, we are conservative and will be examining this carefully as more information emerges.”

Adds Noël Derecki, “Our encouraging results point to how surprisingly tractable this severe disorder proves to be, at least in the lab. We are currently exploring how bone marrow transplantation might affect Rett symptoms once they have become more advanced, and whether there are other effective ways of modulating immune responses and subsequent effects in the central nervous system.”

Article adapted by Medical News Today from original press release. Click ‘references’ tab above for source.
Visit our autism section for the latest news on this subject. The paper, authored by Noël C. Derecki, James C. Cronk, Zhenjie Lu, Eric Xu, Stephen B.G. Abbott, Patrice G. Guyenet and Jonathan Kipnis, is entitled Wild type microglia arrest pathology in a mouse model of Rett Syndrome. doi:10.1038/nature10907
Rett Syndrome Research Trust Please use one of the following formats to cite this article in your essay, paper or report:

MLA

Rett Syndrome Research Trust. “In Mouse Model Of Rett Syndrome, Bone Marrow Transplant Arrests Symptoms.” Medical News Today. MediLexicon, Intl., 19 Mar. 2012. Web.
21 Mar. 2012. APA

Please note: If no author information is provided, the source is cited instead.


‘In Mouse Model Of Rett Syndrome, Bone Marrow Transplant Arrests Symptoms’

Please note that we publish your name, but we do not publish your email address. It is only used to let you know when your message is published. We do not use it for any other purpose. Please see our privacy policy for more information.

If you write about specific medications or operations, please do not name health care professionals by name.

All opinions are moderated before being included (to stop spam)

Contact Our News Editors

For any corrections of factual information, or to contact the editors please use our feedback form.

Please send any medical news or health news press releases to:

Note: Any medical information published on this website is not intended as a substitute for informed medical advice and you should not take any action before consulting with a health care professional. For more information, please read our terms and conditions.


View the original article here

What behavioral therapies can help someone with autism and severe anxiety?

Today’s “Got Questions?” answer comes from clinical psychologist Jeffrey Wood, Ph.D., of the Center for Autism Research and Treatment at the University of California, Los Angeles. The recipient of three Autism Speaks grants, Wood has extensively studied anxiety in elementary school and adolescent children with autism.

Anxiety is common among children and adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Research suggests that at least 30 percent of children withASDalso have an anxiety disorder such as social phobia, separation anxiety, excessive worry/rumination, obsessive compulsive disorder or a phobia such as extreme fear of spiders or loud noise. Indeed, many of the children involved in our ASD research suffer multiple anxiety disorders.

It’s important to remember that anxiety can range from fluctuating, mild and completely understandable to unremitting, severe and irrational. Most people experience some form of anxiety on a regular basis, and this generally involves some degree of physical discomfort as well as negative mood.

Moderate levels of anxiety can actually be a positive, motivating force to increase one’s level of effort and attention when working or socializing.  However, research on how children adapt to different settings (academic, athletic, social, etc.) suggests that high levels of anxiety can interfere with academic and social success.

Several types of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) have been developed to address anxiety in children with ASD, with promising results from several clinical research centers. Techniques include challenging negative thoughts with logic, role-play and modeling courageous behavior, and hierarchical (step by step) exposure to feared situations.

We and others have developed programs using modified versions of CBT that was originally developed for typically developing youth. These directly address problematic levels of anxiety in children with ASD. Several of these programs incorporate “special interests” to motivate children to engage in treatment activities during weekly sessions. For example, the therapist may use favorite cartoon characters to model coping skills, or intersperse conversations about a child’s special interests throughout the treatment sessions to promote motivation and engagement.

Depending on the program, these treatment sessions usually last 60 to 90 minutes each and extend over a course of 6 to 16 weeks. Most treatment plans also require parent involvement and weekly homework assignments.

Results from our randomized clinical trial, case studies and related reports indicate that most children with ASD who complete such programs experience significant improvements in anxiety as well as some improvement in social communication skills and other daily living skills. 1-9

We and others continue to conduct research on these and related behavioral interventions for relieving anxiety. At present these intensive and scientifically studied treatment programs are available primarily at a small number of autism treatment centers. We hope that further research and dissemination efforts will make them become more accessible to families throughout North America and elsewhere.

References:
1. Wood JJ, Gadow KD. Exploring the nature and function of anxiety in youth with autism spectrum disorders. Clinical Psychology: Research and Practice. (In press)
2. Wood JJ, Drahota A, Sze K, Har K, Chiu A, Langer DA. Cognitive behavioral therapy for anxiety in children with autism spectrum disorders: a randomized, controlled trial. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. 2009;50(3):224-34.
3. Sze KM, Wood JJ. Enhancing CBT for the treatment of autism spectrum disorders and concurrent anxiety: a case study. Behavioral and Cognitive Psychotherapy. 2008;36:403-9.
4. Chalfant AM, Rapee R, Carroll L. Treating anxiety disorders in children with high functioning autism spectrum disorders: a controlled trial. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. 2007;37(10):1842-57.
5. Lang R, Regester A, Lauderdale S, Ashbaugh K, Haring S. Treatment of anxiety in autism spectrum disorders using cognitive behaviour therapy: A systematic review. Developmental Neurorehabilitation. 2010;13(1):53-63.
6. Reaven JA, Hepburn SL, Ross RG. Use of the ADOS and ADI-R in children with psychosis: importance of clinical judgment. Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry. 2008;13(1):81-94.
7. Scarpa A, Reyes NM. Improving emotion regulation with CBT in young children with high functioning autism spectrum disorders: a pilot study. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy. 2011;39(4):495-500.
8. White SW, Albano AM, Johnson CR, et al. Development of a cognitive-behavioral intervention program to treat anxiety and social deficits in teens with high-functioning autism. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review. 2010;13(1):77-90.
9. Sofronoff K, Attwood T, Hinton S. A randomized controlled trial of a CBT intervention for anxiety in children with Asperger syndrome. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatiry. 2005;46(11):1152-60.

Read more autism research news and perspective on the science page.

View the original article here

Aspergers Syndrom in Teenagers

Aspergers syndrome is a developmental condition that is believed to be an autism spectrum disorder.

 

Aspergers affects the way a person thinks, communicates and relates to others.

 

The changes which occur during adolescence can be stressful for most teenagers.

 

But for teenagers with Aspergers syndrome, these changes can result in severe anxiety, depression and mental health problems.

 

Teenagers With aspergers syndrome may find it difficult to make and sustain friendships. They lack the ability to mind read and will often miss important social cues, like facial expressions and be unable to read another’s body language.

 

So what is a teen with aspergers syndrome like?

 

Some adolescent with aspergers may prefer to be alone whist others will crave friendships.

 

Some teenagers with Asperger Syndrome will enjoy talking about subjects that they are interested in, sometimes to the point of obsession, and may find more general conversations quite difficult.

 

Some Asperger Syndrome adolescents may also find difficulties with social situations; for example being reprimanded in college, although they never intended or believed that they were doing something wrong.

 

Asperger syndrome in teenagers; As with autism the aspergers adolescent will like repetition; for example following the same routine daily, keeping everything the same, without alterations.

 

These needs for sameness and routine can hinder their social progress and make them less likely to try or attempt anything new.

 

Teenagers with Asperger Syndrome can also have a lot of strengths, such as being very exact, good attention to detail and having expert knowledge on their own special interest.

 

Many asperger teens will also exhibit an excellent memory for particular things; for example, the words to a song or rhyme or maybe an advert or a tune from the radio even.

 

Some teens with aspergers syndrome will exhibit anti-social behaviors, or may well be solitary or even considered odd by their peers, this can cause stress and be a trigger for anxiety in the young person with aspergers.

 

As with autism asperger syndrome in teenagers has it’s problems social misunderstandings and communication problems can lead to social mistakes.

 

For example; a social kiss…aspergers adolescents may not understand the difference between a social kiss and inappropriate wanting to kiss their friends or others… Using asperger social stories can be like throwing the asperger adolescent a life line

 

Studies have shown that by using asperger social stories you can help your asperger adolescent to find coping mechanisms, and strategies. That can help them understand, and deal, with various situations and activities, or events. That they may find confusing, frustrating or stressful.

 

Asperger social stories are an excellent tool which can be introduced at any time and used for all situations your asperger teen is struggling with. These short exact pieces of text include visual images appropriate to the story.

 

Using aspergers social stories will help you asperger adolescent become more socially aware. And will answer the who, why, where and what questions they may have.

 

Asperger social stories will give your adolescent more understanding of situations and make them more comfortable in certain situations as well as giving them clear social cues they will help them identify when and where certain things are and are not appropriate.

 

To obtain specific aspergers social skill stories please visit us at:

 

www.autismsocialstories.com/asperger_adolescents

I am a behavior and developmental advisor, you can find me at www.autismsocialstories.com/asperger_adolescents.
Where you can instantly download asperger social skills stories packed with coping methods and stratergies to help your asperger adolescent better understand and cope with stressful and challenging situations and issues
Article Source