Tag Archives: School Districts

Question?: Pdd

John asks…

Which states and school districts have the best services for a child with PDD-NOS?

My child was recently diagnosed with PDD-NOS. I am looking for resources or websites that can help in finding a GREAT school that can help my child. I am not worried about location at this time; I am just looking for a place to start. Thanks.

admin answers:

Rights and information about placement :
http://www.autism-society.org/site/PageServer?pagename=about_education_IDEA#Placement

http://info.med.yale.edu/chldstdy/autism/pddnos.html

might find this one useful:
http://www.autism-pdd.net/forum/forum_posts.asp?TID=692&PN=1

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Question?: Autism Symptoms In 3 Year Old

Betty asks…

How do i know if my 2 year old has autism?

I am curious because since he turned 2 his speech development has slowed down tremendously, he pretty much knows mommy, dada, ball, and bye, and will continually repeat them. I have been doing some of my own research but it is hard for me to really know because of the fact that i am his mother. He has a younger brother who turned 1 in August and at first his doctor said that it was because of his brother that he wasnt talking, but the 1 year old says more than my 2 year old, i just dont understand. If anybody can help me it would be greatly appreciated!

admin answers:

School districts do not assess children under the age of 3 years old so that is not an option yet. I also would not rely to heavily on a peditrician as very few are aware of the early signs and symptoms of autism and will say things like it will come with time or he is just a boy so he is a late talker etc. Besides language what are your other concerns. Does he use the limited language he has functionally? When he syas ball is it becaue he sees a ball or wants a ball? A child can have a simple language delay that is easy to fix and is usually totally fixable. Signs of autism include not playing with toys appropriately, not using gestures, facial expressions to communicate, not showing shared enjoyement or joint attention. When your child is playing with his favorite toy does he look at you to see if you are watching? If something funny, silly or scary happens does he look at your face to see your reaction? IF you play peek a boo or some similar game does he try to get you to do it again or do more of something fun. Also you can look for stereotypic behavior, hand flapping rocking, spinning objects over and over again, watching just the wheels on the car or truck instead of the whole toy?
These kind of social pragmatic indicators are more important for discerning autism compared to perhaps a simple speech delay. IT is not too early to investigate speech services. A speech person who specializes in working with young children does speech all with toys on the floor and play based so the kids don’t know they are in therapy and they give you wonderful ideas about how to bring out language in your child in daily activities and routines in order to further develop speech. Seek out other professionals. A developmental pediatrician or psychologist might be able to do a formal assessment. NOw adays many area have autism clinics at the children’s hospital or through MR/DD service providers taht serve children with disabilties birth through death. Where I live it is called the regional center but there are similar providers with different names depending where you live. Good luck.

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Everyday FBA

To understand what an FBA is, first its important to understand behavior. A behavior is any observable and measurable action that someone does. Talking is a behavior, thinking is not. All behavior occurs for a reason, and the goal of an FBA is to discover that reason. Once the reason is discovered, then (and only then) an intervention can be created. An intervention is the plan of action. If you tell your behavioral consultant that your son tantrums whenever you try to give him a bath, the plan of action the consultant gives to you is the intervention. A common question I get asked is “Do I have to do a FBA, or hire someone to do a FBA, in order to intervene on a behavior”? The answer is no, you do not. However, understand that without first doing a FBA to discover what is maintaining the behavior you are just guessing. You are then creating an intervention based on a guess. Also when people intervene on a behavior without first doing a FBA the focus tends to be on punishment. In other words the parent or professional is only focusing on reducing the behavior, and there is no emphasis on reaching replacement behaviors.

A FBA is conducted in order to manage challenging behaviors. Challenging behaviors are things like aggression, tantrumming, noncompliance, elopement (wandering away from home or others), self harm, cursing, skipping school, etc. In an ideal situation, a qualified BCBA would be the person conducting the entire FBA process. Unfortunately, that isn’t always possible. Some school districts or families cannot afford to hire a BCBA. Or you might be in a rural area and be put on a waiting list to receive services from a BCBA.

The steps to conducting a FBA are:

Identify the target behavior

Gather information and data

Create a hypothesis to explain the behavior

Create an intervention based on the hypothesis

Gather information and data

Identify the target behavior- A target behavior is what you want to change. You need to make the target behavior so simple and broken down that a stranger could read it on a piece of paper and know the target behavior when they see it. A great example of a target behavior is “Tantrum behavior, defined as falling to the ground accompanied by crying and throwing objects”. A bad example of a target behavior is “Tantrumming is when Billy acts up, and cries a lot”.

Gather information and data- Next you want to put on your detective hat, and start gathering information about the behavior. You want to know when it happens, where it happens, who it happens with, and most importantly why it happens. Observe the child, talk to caregivers (parents, teachers, babysitters, grandma, etc.), and look for patterns or peaks. A pattern is if the behavior always happens right after someone gives the child a demand. A peak is if the behavior happens the most after lunch, and may or may not occur before then. Use the behavioral tools of “A-B-C”. A is the antecedent, which is what happens before the behavior. B is the behavior. C is the consequence, which is what happens after the behavior. Grab a pen and some paper, and start observing and writing down what you see. Plan to observe and take data for at least a few days, in all of the settings where the behavior happens. If you are a parent doing a FBA by yourself, do not change your reactions to the behavior because you are doing a FBA. Stay true to how you normally react. If you pick your daughter up every time she cries, then keep doing that. If you change your reactions, then the results will not be accurate.

Create a hypothesis to explain the behavior- As I have already stated, every behavior happens for a reason. Of all the possible reasons you can think of, they can be categorized into 4 possible functions: To gain attention (attention), to access an activity or tangible item (positive reinforcement), to escape/avoid a task or item (negative reinforcement), or for modulation of sensory needs (automatic reinforcement). There are some books or resources that will list “to communicate a want and/or desire” as the last function. I believe all behavior is a form of communication (especially with nonverbal children) so I just use these 4 functions. Your data that you gathered and collected is how you know which function you are dealing with. If you used an ABC data form, look at every “A” and “C” column. What is the consequence that occurred the most after the behavior, and what is the antecedent that occurred the most before the behavior? Did the child get laughs from their peers or classmates? That is a function of attention. Did the child get out of doing their homework? That is a function of escape. Does the child do the behavior even when they are alone, or does the data reveal a variable, undifferentiated pattern? That is a function of automatic reinforcement. Be aware that one behavior may have multiple functions, but typically there is a primary function followed by lessor, or secondary functions.

Create an intervention based on the hypothesis- Once you have your hypothesis of why the behavior is happening; now you can create an intervention. There are websites and books out there that describe all kinds of behavioral interventions. Understand that ABA is not about “cut and paste”. What worked for your son, may not work for your daughter. What works for your 2nd grade class, may not work for your 3rd grade class. You will need to create an individual intervention that is appropriate for your child/student, and works for the setting. The intervention you create should teach the child what to do instead of the inappropriate behavior, and it should alter the current relationship between the function and the behavior. In other words, if the function of the behavior is attention, you stop giving attention to the inappropriate behavior and start giving attention to appropriate behaviors. The goal is to give the child a more appropriate way of serving the function of their behavior than whatever it is they are currently doing.

Gather information and data- Yes, this step is listed twice. Many people, even some professionals, think that once you create an intervention and put it in place that you are done. That is not true. You cannot say an intervention has worked and that your FBA was effective until you can show progress regarding the target behavior. Once the intervention is in place, continue to observe the behavior and collect data. Is the behavior still happening at the same rate? Did the behavior go up? Did a new behavior pop up? This step in the process is why it is recommended to locate a qualified BCBA to do a FBA. I call it the “troubleshooting” phase: A therapist or parent is doing an intervention, but it doesn’t seem to be working. At that point I typically collect information, and start gathering data to find out why the intervention isn’t working. Sometimes it’s because the intervention isn’t being followed consistently. Sometimes it’s because the child is going through huge changes (such as a move, or a new school) and an intervention shouldn’t be going on at the same time as that. Sometimes the intervention is an extinction technique, and the family didn’t know to expect an extinction burst. There are many reasons why your intervention might fail. It isn’t uncommon to try out a few interventions before you land on the successful one. The more experience you get with doing a FBA, the better you will get at creating successful interventions.

Lastly, here are a few examples of appropriate interventions for each of the 3 possible functions of behavior. These examples are just a starting point; the actual intervention you create will depend on the child and their setting (school, home, daycare, etc.)-

Function of Positive Reinforcement: Provide ways for the child to receive reinforcement other than the inappropriate behavior, let the child see you give huge attention to siblings/peers engaged in appropriate behavior, redirect the child to a more appropriate behavior.

Function of Attention: Put positive behavior supports in place, do not provide attention for the inappropriate behavior including eye contact, language, or smiles, provide an overabundance of attention when the child is behaving appropriately.

Function of Negative Reinforcement: Teach the child to request a break from working, teach the child to notify others they do not want to do something (like signing “All Done”), make the task or work less difficult, shorten the task, give the child more choices & then honor their choice, make the task more interesting to the child, use extinction.

Function of Automatic Reinforcement: Incorporate a sensory diet, alternate active/ highly stimulating activities with passive/ low stimulating activities, teach the child self control, teach appropriate behavior that serves the same need as the inappropriate behavior, provide free access to preferred toys and activities.

**Quick Tip: Doing an FBA and creating interventions is an intricate, complex process. Do not be discouraged if it takes time and repeated attempts to learn this skill.

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Autistic Preschool – Autism Preschool Options To Consider For Your Autistic Child

Autistic Preschool

A lot of parents discover such a roughly their simple autism when he inserts preschool. Before properties enter school, such a child may recently give the impression a little bit different – passive, sensitive, or peculiar. Autistic Preschool

But for kids with autism preschool concerns surface. Children with autism may have more challenges dealing with different schedules, pretend play, or interaction than other kids. Their family members are probably used to their kid’s differences, but teachers in preschool expect their students to readily adapt to new environments.

Then you receive a call from the school’s director. Some administrators are not helpful and might pressure parents to remove their child from the school as soon as possible, claiming that the school does not cater to children with special needs.

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So what are your options? How can you cope with this situation?

1 – A lot of families choose to have their child with autism stay at home until the time comes when he’s ready for kindergarten. They utilize public or private options for therapy. This is a wise move, but the downside is, it can be costly. Autistic Preschool

2 – All U.S. states mandate school districts to give early intervention programs to pre-schoolers who are determined to have special needs. While it’s true that the quality of the curriculum is different, they are cost-free and designed specifically for kids with special needs. This can be a helpful option.

3 – A number of families with an autistic child send their child to normal preschools that offer one-on-one support. This may work out quite well, depending on the autistic child, the mentor, and the school.

4 – In various areas, private preschools are emerging to cater to the needs of preschool children with special needs. For children with autism, preschools can be costly, but they provide quality programs. Autistic Preschool

What option is fitting for your family? More often than not, the answer is not easy to determine. There are lots of factors to consider, especially when both parents are working, there is no great private program in your local area, and your local preschool don’t offer programs for children with special needs. If such is the case, public special needs school is probably the most practical choice. Weigh your options carefully. You as parents know what is ultimately best for your child. Don’t let your love ones suffer anymore! Lead them out through Autistic Preschool program now!

Feeling lost without solutions? Autistic Preschool is a proven Autism Solution for your Child. Try The Program and change child’s life forever!
Article Source

Preschool For Children With Autism – Autism Preschool Options To Consider For Your Autistic Child

Preschool For Children With Autism

A lot of parents discover that about their child’s autism when he enters preschool. Before they enter school, their child may just seem a little different – passive, sensitive, or peculiar.

But for kids with autism preschool concerns surface. Children with autism may have more challenges dealing with different schedules, pretend play, or interaction than other kids. Their family members are probably used to their kid’s differences, but teachers in preschool expect their students to readily adapt to new environments. Preschool For Children With Autism

Then you receive a call from the school’s director. Some administrators are not helpful and might pressure parents to remove their child from the school as soon as possible, claiming that the school does not cater to children with special needs.

So what are your options? How can you cope with this situation?

1 – A lot of families choose to have their child with autism stay at home until the time comes when he’s ready for kindergarten. They utilize public or private options for therapy. This is a wise move, but the downside is, it can be costly. Preschool For Children With Autism

2 – All U.S. states mandate school districts to give early intervention programs to pre-schoolers who are determined to have special needs. While it’s true that the quality of the curriculum is different, they are cost-free and designed specifically for kids with special needs. This can be a helpful option.

3 – A number of families with an autistic child send their child to normal preschools that offer one-on-one support. This may work out quite well, depending on the autistic child, the mentor, and the school. Preschool For Children With Autism

4 – In various areas, private preschools are emerging to cater to the needs of preschool children with special needs. For children with autism, preschools can be costly, but they provide quality programs.

What option is fitting for your family? More often than not, the answer is not easy to determine. There are lots of factors to consider, especially when both parents are working, there is no great private program in your local area, and your local preschool don’t offer programs for children with special needs. If such is the case, public special needs school is probably the most practical choice. Weigh your options carefully. You as parents know what is ultimately best for your child. Don’t let your love ones suffer anymore! Lead them out through Preschool For Children With Autism program now!

Feeling lost without solutions? Preschool For Children With Autism is a proven Autism Solution for your Child. Try The Program and change child’s life forever!
Article Source