Tag Archives: Rare Mutations

Question?: Rett Syndrome Genetics

George asks…

what is autism?

Im not sure what that is

admin answers:

Autism is a brain development disorder that impairs social interaction and communication, and causes restricted and repetitive behavior, all starting before a child is three years old. This set of signs distinguishes autism from milder autism spectrum disorders (ASD) such as Asperger syndrome.[2]

Autism has a strong genetic basis, although the genetics of autism are complex and it is unclear whether ASD is explained more by multigene interactions or by rare mutations.[3] In rare cases, autism is strongly associated with agents that cause birth defects.[4] Other proposed causes, such as childhood vaccines, are controversial and the vaccine hypotheses lack convincing scientific evidence.[5] Most recent reviews estimate a prevalence of one to two cases per 1,000 people for autism, and about six per 1,000 for ASD, with ASD averaging a 4.3:1 male-to-female ratio. The number of people known to have autism has increased dramatically since the 1980s, at least partly due to changes in diagnostic practice; the question of whether actual prevalence has increased is unresolved.[6]

Autism affects many parts of the brain; how this occurs is poorly understood. Parents usually notice signs in the first two years of their child’s life. Early behavioral or cognitive intervention can help children gain self-care, social, and communication skills. There is no cure.[7] Few children with autism live independently after reaching adulthood, but some become successful,[8] and an autistic culture has developed, with some seeking a cure and others believing that autism is a condition rather than a disorder.[9]
Contents
[hide]

* 1 Classification
* 2 Characteristics
o 2.1 Social development
o 2.2 Communication
o 2.3 Repetitive behavior
o 2.4 Other symptoms
* 3 Causes
* 4 Mechanism
o 4.1 Pathophysiology
o 4.2 Neuropsychology
* 5 Screening
* 6 Diagnosis
* 7 Management
* 8 Prognosis
* 9 Epidemiology
* 10 History
* 11 References
* 12 External links

Classification

Autism is a brain development disorder that first gives signs during infancy or childhood and follows a steady course without remission or relapse.[2] Impairments result from maturation-related changes in various systems of the brain.[10] Autism is one of the five pervasive developmental disorders (PDD), which are characterized by widespread abnormalities of social interactions and communication, and severely restricted interests and highly repetitive behavior.[2]
Hans Asperger introduced the modern sense of the word autism in 1938.
Hans Asperger introduced the modern sense of the word autism in 1938.[11]

Of the other four PDD forms, Asperger syndrome is closest to autism in signs and likely causes; Rett syndrome and childhood disintegrative disorder share several signs with autism, but may have unrelated causes; PDD not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS) is diagnosed when the criteria are not met for a more specific disorder.[12] Unlike autism, Asperger’s has no substantial delay in language development.[13] The terminology of autism can be bewildering, with autism, Asperger’s and PDD-NOS often called the autism spectrum disorders (ASD)[7] or sometimes the autistic disorders,[14] whereas autism itself is often called autistic disorder, childhood autism, or infantile autism. In this article, autism refers to the classic autistic disorder, while other sources sometimes use autism or the autisms to refer to ASD,[15] or equate ASD with PDD.[16] ASD, in turn, is a subset of the broader autism phenotype (BAP), which describes individuals who may not have ASD but do have autistic-like traits, such as avoiding eye contact.[17]

The manifestations of autism cover a wide spectrum, ranging from individuals with severe impairments—who may be silent, mentally disabled, and locked into hand flapping and rocking—to less impaired individuals who may have active but distinctly odd social approaches, narrowly focused interests, and verbose, pedantic communication.[18] Sometimes the syndrome is divided into low-, medium- and high-functioning autism (LFA, MFA, and HFA), based on IQ thresholds,[19] or on how much support the individual requires in daily life; these subdivisions are not standardized and are controversial. Autism can also be divided into syndromal and non-syndromal autism, where the former is associated with severe or profound mental retardation or a congenital syndrome with physical symptoms, such as tuberous sclerosis.[20] Although individuals with Asperger’s tend to perform better cognitively than those with autism, the extent of the overlap between Asperger’s, HFA, and non-syndromal autism is unclear.[21]

Some studies have reported diagnoses of autism in children due to a loss of language or social skills after 14 months of age, as opposed to a failure to make progress. Several terms are used for this phenomenon, including regressive autism, setback autism, and developmental stagnation. The validity of this distinction remains controversial; it is possible that regressive autism is a specific subtype.[22][23][24]

Characteristics

Autism is distinguished by a pattern of symptoms rather than one single symptom. The main characteristics are impairments in social interaction, impairments in communication, restricted interests and repetitive behavior. Other aspects, such as atypical eating, are also common but are not essential for diagnosis.[25] Individual symptoms of autism occur in the general population and appear not to associate highly, without a sharp line separating pathological severity from common traits.[26]

Social development

People with autism have social impairments and often lack the intuition about others that many people take for granted. Noted autistic Temple Grandin described her inability to understand the social communication of neurotypicals as leaving her feeling “like an anthropologist on Mars”.[27]

Social impairments become apparent early in childhood and continue through adulthood. Autistic infants show less attention to social stimuli, smile and look at others less often, and respond less to their own name. Autistic toddlers have more striking social deviance; for example, they have less eye contact and anticipatory postures and are more likely to communicate by manipulating another person’s hand.[24] Three- to five-year-old autistic children are less likely to exhibit social understanding, approach others spontaneously, imitate and respond to emotions, communicate nonverbally, and take turns with others. However, they do form attachments to their primary caregivers.[28] They display moderately less attachment security than usual, although this feature disappears in children with higher mental development or less severe ASD.[29] Older children and adults with ASD perform worse on tests of face and emotion recognition.[30]

Contrary to common belief, autistic children do not prefer to be alone. Making and maintaining friendships often proves to be difficult for those with autism. For them, the quality of friendships, not the number of friends, predicts how lonely they are.[31]

There are many anecdotal reports, but few systematic studies, of aggression and violence in individuals with ASD. The limited data suggest that in children with mental retardation, autism is associated with aggression, destruction of property, and tantrums. Dominick et al. Interviewed the parents of 67 children with ASD and reported that about two-thirds of the children had periods of severe tantrums and about one-third had a history of aggression, with tantrums significantly more common than in children with a history of language impairment.[32]

Communication

About a third to a half of individuals with autism do not develop enough natural speech to meet their daily communication needs.[33] Differences in communication may be present from the first year of life, and may include delayed onset of babbling, unusual gestures, diminished responsiveness, and the desynchronization of vocal patterns with the caregiver. In the second and third years, autistic children have less frequent and less diverse babbling, consonants, words, and word combinations; their gestures are less often integrated with words. Autistic children are less likely to make requests or share experiences, and are more likely to simply repeat others’ words (echolalia)[23][34] or reverse pronouns.[35] Joint attention seems to be necessary for functional speech, and deficits in joint attention seem to distinguish infants with ASD:[1] for example, they may look at a pointing hand instead of the pointed-at object,[24][34] and they consistently fail to point to “comment” about or “share” an experience at age-appropriate times.[1] Autistic children may have difficulty with imaginative play and with developing symbols into language.[23][34]

In a pair of studies, high-functioning autistic children aged 8–15 performed equally well, and adults better than individually matched controls at basic language tasks involving vocabulary and spelling. Both autistic groups performed worse than controls at complex language tasks such as figurative language, comprehension and inference. As people are often sized up initially from their basic language skills, these studies suggest that people speaking to autistic individuals are more likely to overestimate what their audience comprehends.[36]

Repetitive behavior
A young boy with autism, and the precise line of toys he made
A young boy with autism, and the precise line of toys he made

Autistic individuals display many forms of repetitive or restricted behavior, which the Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised (RBS-R)[37] categorizes as follows.

* Stereotypy is apparently purposeless movement, such as hand flapping, head rolling, or body rocking.
* Comp

Powered by Yahoo! Answers

Question?: Autism Symptoms In 6 Year Old

Mandy asks…

What are your tips about tutoring an 8 year old with Autism?

He is in the 2nd grade and he can read on the 2nd grade reading level though his reading comprehension is poor. That is what I’ll be working with him on mostly. I will also be working on his handwriting as his small motor skills are not strong. His speech delay puts his communication level at about 4 years old.

I will be working with him 3 times a week.

admin answers:

First be sure you know what it is…

Autism is a brain development disorder characterized by impaired social interaction and communication, and by restricted and repetitive behavior. These signs all begin before a child is three years old.[2] The autism spectrum disorders (ASD) also include related conditions with milder signs and symptoms.[3]

Autism has a strong genetic basis, although the genetics of autism are complex and it is unclear whether ASD is explained more by multigene interactions or by rare mutations.[4] In rare cases, autism is strongly associated with agents that cause birth defects.[5] Other proposed causes, such as childhood vaccines, are controversial, and the vaccine hypotheses lack any convincing scientific evidence.[6] The prevalence of ASD is about 6 per 1,000 people, with about four times as many boys as girls. The number of people known to have autism has increased dramatically since the 1980s, partly due to changes in diagnostic practice; the question of whether actual prevalence has increased is unresolved.[7]

Autism affects many parts of the brain; how this occurs is not understood. Parents usually notice signs in the first two years of their child’s life. Although early behavioral or cognitive intervention can help children gain self-care, social, and communication skills, there is no known cure.[3] Few children with autism live independently after reaching adulthood, but some become successful,[8] and an autistic culture has developed, with some seeking a cure and others believing that autism is a condition rather than a disorder.[9]

Second…

Autistic kids often have one particular thing that they are focused on and love. I.E. Cars, or trains, or scooby doo. Figure out what that is and incorporate it into your tutoring. This will help keep their attention.

Third…

Do your research.. There is HUNDEREDS of sights on the internet about working with Autistic children.

Powered by Yahoo! Answers

Autism In The News, 2012, Week 28

Futurity.org – Rare mutations sharply spike autism risk

www.futurity.org7/18/12

Five rare mutations in a single gene appear to significantly increase the chances that a boy will develop an autism spectrum disorder (ASD), new research shows.

Futurity.org – Study: Immune system has role in autism

www.futurity.org7/18/12

“We have long suspected that the immune system plays a role in the development of autism spectrum disorder,” says Paul Patterson, a professor of biological sciences at Caltech, who led the work. “In our studies of a mouse

Autism Mother Sues Autism Speaks For Disability Discrimination – Care2.com (blog)

news.google.com

The mother of a teenage autistic son is suing the organization Autism Speaks for alleging rescinding a job offer after she asked if workplace accommodations might be possible due to her child’s needs.

That is, an organization that says it champions the needs of autistic individuals and their families is being sued for failing to accommodate the needs of a mother and of her autistic child.

Autism signs appear in baby’s brains as early as 6 months – Vitals

vitals.nbcnews.com2/17/12

The early signs of autism are visible in the brains of 6-month-old infants, a new study finds, suggesting that future treatments could be given at this time, to lessen the impact of the disorder on children.
Researchers looked at how the brain develops in early life, and found that tracts of white matter that connect different regions of the brain didn’t form as quickly in children who later developed autism, compared with kids who didn’t develop the disorder.Read more: http://www.care2.com/causes/autism-mother-sues-autism-speaks-for-disability-discrimination.html#ixzz21H2BmAXf Tagged as: Autism

View the original article here

Boys More Affected By Mutations In Autism Susceptibility Gene

Main Category: Autism
Also Included In: Genetics;  Men’s Health
Article Date: 15 Jul 2012 – 0:00 PDT Current ratings for:
Boys More Affected By Mutations In Autism Susceptibility Gene
5 starsnot yet rated
Researchers at Emory University School of Medicine have identified five rare mutations in a single gene that appear to increase the chances that a boy will develop an autism spectrum disorder (ASD).

Mutations in the AFF2 gene, and other genes like it on the X chromosome, may explain why autism spectrum disorders affect four times as many boys as girls.

The mutations in AFF2 appeared in 2.5 percent (5 out of 202) boys with an ASD. Mutations in X chromosome genes only affect boys, who have one X chromosome. Girls have a second copy of the gene that can compensate.

The results were published in the journal Human Molecular Genetics.

“Our data suggest that AFF2 could be one of the major X-linked risk factors for ASD’s,” says senior author Michael Zwick, PhD, assistant professor of human genetics at Emory University School of Medicine.

The finding bolsters a growing consensus among geneticists that rare variants in many different genes contribute significantly to risk for autism spectrum disorders.

The mutations in the AFF2 gene probably do not cause ASDs all by themselves, Zwick says.

“We do not think that the variants we have identified are monogenic causes of autism,” he says. “Our data does support the idea that this is an autism susceptibility gene.”

In some situations, mutations in a single gene are enough by themselves to lead to a neurodevelopmental disorder with autistic features, such as fragile X syndrome or tuberous sclerosis complex. But these types of mutations are thought to account for a small number of ASD cases.

Recent large-scale genetic studies of autism spectrum disorders have identified several “rare variants” that sharply increase ASD risk. Scientists believe rare variants could explain up to 15 or 20 percent of ASD cases. However, until now no single variant has been found in more than one percent of ASD cases.

Working with Zwick, postdoctoral fellow Kajari Mondal and her colleagues read the sequence of the AFF2 gene in DNA from 202 boys diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders. The patient samples came from the Autism Genetic Resource Exchange and the Simons Simplex Collection.

Tests showed that in four cases, the affected boys had inherited the risk-conferring mutations from their mothers. One boy had a “de novo” (not coming from the parents) mutation. Compared with X-linked genes in unaffected people, mutations in AFF2 were five times more abundant in the boys with ASDs.

The AFF2 gene had already been identified as responsible for a rare inherited form of intellectual disability with autistic features. This effect is seen when the AFF2 gene is deleted or silenced completely.

AFF2 has some similarity to FMR1, the gene responsible for fragile X syndrome. Like FMR1, it can be silenced by a triplet repeat. In these cases, the presence of the triplet repeat (three genetic bases repeated dozens of times) triggers a change in chromosomal structure that prevents the gene from being turned on.

In contrast, the mutations Zwick’s team found are more subtle, slightly changing the sequence of the protein AFF2 encodes. Little is known about the precise function of the AFF2 protein. A related gene in fruit flies called lilliputian also appears to regulate the development of neurons.

Zwick says one of his laboratory’s projects is to learn more about the function of the AFF2 gene, and to probe how the mutations identified by his team affect the function. His team is also working on gauging the extent to which other genes on the X chromosome contribute to autism risk.

Article adapted by Medical News Today from original press release. Click ‘references’ tab above for source.
Visit our autism section for the latest news on this subject. The research was supported by the National Institute of Mental Health (MH076439) and the Simons Foundation Autism Research Initiative.
Reference: K. Mondal, D. Ramachandran, V.C. Patel, K.R. Hagen, P. Bose, D.J. Cutler and M.E. Zwick. Excess variants in AFF2 detected by massively parallel sequencing of males with autism spectrum disorder. Hum. Mol. Genet. Advance access. (2012). doi: 10.1093/hmg/dds267
Emory University Please use one of the following formats to cite this article in your essay, paper or report:

MLA

Emory University. “Boys More Affected By Mutations In Autism Susceptibility Gene.” Medical News Today. MediLexicon, Intl., 15 Jul. 2012. Web.
15 Jul. 2012. APA

Please note: If no author information is provided, the source is cited instead.


‘Boys More Affected By Mutations In Autism Susceptibility Gene’

Please note that we publish your name, but we do not publish your email address. It is only used to let you know when your message is published. We do not use it for any other purpose. Please see our privacy policy for more information.

If you write about specific medications or operations, please do not name health care professionals by name.

All opinions are moderated before being included (to stop spam)

Contact Our News Editors

For any corrections of factual information, or to contact the editors please use our feedback form.

Please send any medical news or health news press releases to:

Note: Any medical information published on this website is not intended as a substitute for informed medical advice and you should not take any action before consulting with a health care professional. For more information, please read our terms and conditions.


View the original article here

Study Uncovers New Tools For Targeting Genes Linked To Autism

Main Category: Autism
Also Included In: Genetics
Article Date: 24 Jun 2012 – 0:00 PDT Current ratings for:
‘Study Uncovers New Tools For Targeting Genes Linked To Autism’
not yet ratednot yet rated
UCLA researchers have combined two tools – gene expression and the use of peripheral blood – to expand scientists’ arsenal of methods for pinpointing genes that play a role in autism. Published in the online edition of the American Journal of Human Genetics, the findings could help scientists zero in on genes that offer future therapeutic targets for the disorder.

“Technological advances now allow us to rapidly sequence the genome and uncover dozens of rare mutations,” explained principal investigator Dr. Daniel Geschwind, the Gordon and Virginia MacDonald Distinguished Professor of Human Genetics and a professor of neurology at the David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA. “But just because a particular genetic mutation is rare doesn’t mean it’s actually causing disease. We used a new approach to tease out potential precursors of autism from the occasional genetic glitch.”

Geschwind and his colleagues studied DNA contained in blood samples from 244 families with one healthy child and one child on the autism spectrum. The team used a hybrid method that blended tests that read the order of DNA bases with those that analyze gene expression, the process by which genes make cellular proteins.

“Monitoring gene expression provides us with another line of data to inform our understanding of how autism develops,” said Geschwind, who is also director of the Center for Autism Research and Treatment at the Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Behavior at UCLA. “Integrating this method with the sequencing of DNA bases expands our ability to find mutations leading to the disease.”

Gene expression offers a molecular signpost pointing scientists in the right direction by narrowing the field and highlighting specific areas of the genome. For example, if a gene is expressed at substantially higher or lower levels in a patient, researchers will review the patient’s DNA to check if that gene has changed.

“We found that we can use gene expression to help understand whether a rare mutation is causing disease or playing a role in disease development,” said Geschwind. “A true mutation will alter a gene’s sequence, modifying the protein or RNA it produces – or preventing the gene from producing them entirely.

“A gene mutation accompanied by a change in expression clues us to a hot spot on the genome and directs us where to look next,” he added. “Not all mutations will influence gene expression, but this approach improves our ability to pinpoint those that do.”

The researchers used the combined method to prioritize gene targets that merit closer investigation, potentially explaining why one person develops autism and their sibling does not.

Their search turned up new regions in the genome where genetic variations showed strong links to autism and altered expression patterns. Genes in these regions were more likely to be mutated in the autistic children than in their unaffected siblings.

“When we looked at genes associated with nervous-system function we found significantly more genes were expressed at higher or lower levels in the children diagnosed with autism than we did in their siblings unaffected by the disorder,” said Geschwind.

Finally, the research team discovered that the DNA contained in peripheral blood can help shed light on diseases of the central nervous system. Brain cells and genes related to synaptic function are expressed in the blood, offering a window into gene expression.

“Brain tissue from people with autism is not readily available for study, and some people are reluctant to use non-neural tissue in psychiatric disease,” explained Geschwind. “But our study demonstrates that even peripheral blood can expand our knowledge of neurological disease.”

The team’s next step will be to replicate their findings in a larger population.

Article adapted by Medical News Today from original press release. Click ‘references’ tab above for source.
Visit our autism section for the latest news on this subject. Autism is a complex brain disorder that strikes in early childhood. The condition disrupts a child’s ability to communicate and develop social relationships and is often accompanied by acute behavioral challenges. Autism spectrum disorders are diagnosed in one in 110 children in the United States, affecting four times as many boys as girls. Diagnoses have expanded tenfold in the last decade.
The research was supported by grants from the Simons Foundation, the National Institute of Mental Health (5R01 MH081754-04), the Wellcome Trust and Autism Speaks. Geschwind’s coauthors included first author Rui Luo, Irina Voineagu, Lambertus Klei, Chaochao Cai, Jing Ou, Jennifer Lowe and Matthew State of UCLA; Stephan Sanders of Yale University; Ni Huang and Matthew Hurles of the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute; and Su Chu and Bernie Devlin of Carnegie Mellon University.
University of California – Los Angeles Health Sciences Please use one of the following formats to cite this article in your essay, paper or report:

MLA

University of California – Los Angeles Health Scie. “Study Uncovers New Tools For Targeting Genes Linked To Autism.” Medical News Today. MediLexicon, Intl., 24 Jun. 2012. Web.
24 Jun. 2012. APA

Please note: If no author information is provided, the source is cited instead.


‘Study Uncovers New Tools For Targeting Genes Linked To Autism’

Please note that we publish your name, but we do not publish your email address. It is only used to let you know when your message is published. We do not use it for any other purpose. Please see our privacy policy for more information.

If you write about specific medications or operations, please do not name health care professionals by name.

All opinions are moderated before being included (to stop spam)

Contact Our News Editors

For any corrections of factual information, or to contact the editors please use our feedback form.

Please send any medical news or health news press releases to:

Note: Any medical information published on this website is not intended as a substitute for informed medical advice and you should not take any action before consulting with a health care professional. For more information, please read our terms and conditions.


View the original article here

Learn How to Cope With Autism Symptoms

This article will define in detail, the now widely observed disease autism. To cure any disease, you need to know in the first place what it is. Hence this article will begin by defining what is autism? Autism is a disorder, of the neurons and is identified by deteriorating and impaired communication skills and interaction in the social environment. People suffering from autism show repetitive behavior that restricts their ability to learn new behavioral characteristics. The signs of autism can start showing as early as three years old, so autism is not a disease of the elderly or of the infants since it can develop even in the earliest or the latest stages of life. How does this particular neural disease develop? Autism is caused by dysfunctional information gathering, processing and organizing of information by synapses and nerve cells in the brain. In medical terms there are three types of autism disorders that fall under the spectrum of autistic diseases. These include autism, Asperger syndrome and lastly pervasive development disorder. In the Asperger syndrome, the patient shows stunted cognitive and language development and the Pervasive development disorder is diagnosed when the signs and symptoms of autism and Asperger are not met.

The basis of autism isn’t clear, however, it is mostly considered to be a disease of the genes. Some believe that it is caused by rare mutations while others believe it to be a cause of irregular combinations of genetic variants. In other conditions, autism is also caused by birth defects. Coming onto the signs of autism, there are numerous characteristics which depict this particular neural disease. These include stunted social development, communication problems, repetitive and restricted behavior, prohibited motor skills and odd eating behaviors.

Now before providing treatment for autism and diagnosis, any particular disease needs to be screened first. In the case of autism, most people notice odd behavior as early as 16 months to 24 months. There are certain signs that can be most commonly used to diagnose this particular problem. These include the inability to speak or babble up till twelve months, no pointing or motor skills up till twelve months, no language usage and loss of communication and language skills. There are numerous checklists present to further help screen this particular disease which include Checklist for Autism, First Year Inventory and Early screening of Autism. These different checklists are used for prognosis and screening, where different variables are checked and tested against a patient.

Now coming on to the prognosis and treatment of autism, talking about a full-recovery treatment, there is no such thing. So autism cannot be cured permanently since it is a disease of the neurons; medical specialists seldom finds cures to diseases related to the brain. Recovery has said to happen itself, in rare cases as developments are seen as the child grows up and is given special attention regarding development of motor and language skills. Furthermore, such children are usually provided special social interaction training where they are made to feel more comfortable in external environment. Intensive help and care can aid a child to cope up with this particular neural disease.

View the original article here

Facts About Symptoms of Autism

The neural development disorder that are characterized by impaired communication, repetitive and restrictive behavior, and social interaction is known as Autism. Normally the symptoms of Autism or the disorder’s warning signs begin before the child has reached three years of age. The disorder affects the processing of information in the brain because it changes how a person’s nerve cells and their synapses connect with one another and then organize themselves. Unfortunately, the way in which this occurs is not understood.

In the Autism Spectrum, Autism is one of the three disorders that it covers. Asperger’s Syndrome and Pervasive Developmental Disorder – Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS) are the other two that are components of the spectrum. PDD-NOS is typically diagnosed when the characteristics of Asperger’s Syndrome or Autism are not present. Although the genetics involved in Autism are extremely complex in nature, it isn’t clear as to whether or not Autism Spectrum Disorders are rare mutations or rare combinations of genetic variations.

In rare occurrences, the symptoms of Autism are strongly related to genetic agents that are responsible for birth defects. Additionally, there are numerous controversies that surround environmental issues including childhood vaccines, heavy metals, and pesticides. Interestingly enough, the hypothesis regarding the vaccine issue is biologically implausible and lacks any psychological or scientific evidence. In recent reports published by the CDC, they estimate that roughly 1 out of every 100 children have the symptoms of Autism.

Since the 1980’s when Autism became a common concern of the medical and psychological communities, the increase in the number of diagnoses of the disorder have increased exponentially. Naturally, this is due in part to changes and updates where current diagnostic practices are concerned. However, whether or not it can be considered prevalent in US society is the source of numerous debates. What is known for sure is that parents typically notice the symptoms of Autism within the first two years of the child’s life.

The symptoms of Autism will vary greatly from one individual to the next. However, there are specific core symptoms that every individual who is suffering with autism have in common. These include:

Limited interests in normal activities or the way in which they play – a need for an established routine, an unusual focus on certain objects or toys, and the preoccupation of specific topics or subject matter

Non-verbal and verbal communication – delay in or a lack of learning how to talk, difficulty understanding the perspective of those listening to them, problems engaging in meaningful conversation, and a repetitive or stereotyped use of language

Social interaction and relationships – failure to establish friendships or relationships with their peers; lack of empathy; lack of interest where sharing achievements, enjoyment, or interests with others is concerned

As a parent, you need to be compiling a list of any unusual behavior while observing your child on a regular basis if you are concerned that they are showing the symptoms of Autism mentioned above. In so doing, when you discuss these issues with your child’s pediatrician, family physician, or are referred by either to a specialist to determine if Autism is present, this will help considerably.

For the latest videos and training information on child development as well as books and curricula on Autism please visit childdevelopmentmedia.com.

View the original article here