Tag Archives: Psychiatry

Question?: Asperger Syndrome Test

Carol asks…

why do some people have mental problems while others dont?

i have aspergers syndrome, crowd anxiety, depression. my friend has ADHD. my aunt has depression.
why do some people have mental problems while others dont?

admin answers:

I am not saying there are no mental problems but one should ask why USA seem to be the most depressed country in the world? …while there is no medical objective test to prove someone has any of the psychiatry diagnoses.

This 2 minutes long video explains the difference between diagnosis in real medicine backed up by science and psychiatry diagnosis like ADHD backed up by personal opinions.

Psychiatry – NO SCIENCE-NO CURES (4:54min)
Can psychiatrists help you with antidepressants? Are there any cures in psychiatry today? How many people have been cured? What are your chances?
Check it for yourself – hear it from interviewed psychiatrists.

*************************************************************

The Marketing of Madness:
Are We All Insane?

The definitive documentary on psychotropic drugging—this is the story of the high-income partnership between drug companies and psychiatry which has created an $80 billion profit from the peddling of psychotropic drugs to an unsuspecting public.

But appearances are deceiving.

How valid are psychiatrist’s diagnoses—and how safe are their drugs?

Digging deep beneath the corporate veneer, this three-part documentary exposes the truth behind the slick marketing schemes and scientific deceit that conceal a dangerous and often deadly sales campaign.
Http://www.cchr.org/videos/marketing-of-madness.html

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Autism In Teens – Teaching Social Skills Pays Off

Editor’s Choice
Main Category: Autism
Also Included In: Psychology / Psychiatry;  Pediatrics / Children’s Health
Article Date: 19 Jun 2012 – 11:00 PDT Current ratings for:
‘Autism In Teens – Teaching Social Skills Pays Off’
not yet rated4 stars
In 2006, the UCLA Program for the Education and Enrichment of Relational Skills (PEERS) clinic was established in order to help high functioning adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) improve their social skills to fit in better with their peers at school.

High functioning adolescents with ASD are considered healthy enough to be “mainstreamed” in school.

Although PEERS was shown to be effective in earlier studies, researchers were still unsure as to whether the new skills “stuck” with these adolescents after they completed the PEERS classes.

Now, results from a long-term follow-up study show that these teens maintained the skills taught, and in some cases even improved. The study is published in the current edition of the Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders.

Approximately 1 in 88 children born in the United States has some form of ASD.

The disorder is characterized by impairments in communication and socialization.

Elizabeth Laugeson, director of the PEERS Clinic and a UCLA assistant clinical professor of psychiatry, and colleagues found that the PEERS intervention resulted in considerable improvements in social skills among the teens.

In addition, reports from parents indicated that by the end of class and even at 14-week follow-up, adolescents’ ASD symptoms associated to social responsiveness significantly decreased. The researchers also found that the teens’ knowledge of social skills improved and they spent more time together with their peers.

Although the teachers did not know the adolescents who took part in the PEERS class, their ratings of the teens social functioning in class showed significant improvements at the long-term follow-up.

Furthermore, 14 weeks after the program was over, both teachers and parents reported fewer behavioral problems with the teens.

Laugeson, who also directs The Help Ground-UCLA Autism Research Alliance, explained:

“Teens not only showed better social competence and greater understanding of social skills, but they were having more frequent get-togethers with their peers because they had developed the critical skills needed to make and keep friends.”

Although earlier studies have shown that intervention during childhood and adolescence is vital, only a few evidence-based interventions focus on enhancing the social competence of adolescents with ASD, which makes findings from this study unique and important.

Laugeson said:

“This is exciting news. It shows that teens with autism can learn social skills and that the tools stick even after the program is over, improving their quality of life and helping them to develop meaningful relationships and to feel more comfortable within their social world. The fact that these social skills are sticking is critical, because we need them to thrive throughout our lives.”

According to Laugeson, the parents played a significant role in the effectiveness of the program. The PEERS classes, which focus on educating the teens about the rules of social etiquette, require parents to take part as well.

Parents were informed in separate meetings on how to be social coaches for their teens in the real world, for instance, how to avoid bullying or deflect taunts (“Yeah, whatever”), how to have a conversation (by trading information), and how to show good sportsmanship (“Hey, nice shot!”).

The 90 minute classes were held once a week for 14 weeks. During the class participants were given: role-playing demonstrationsbrief didactic instructionin-class coaching with performance feedbackbehavioral rehearsal exercisesIn addition, they were given weekly “homework” assignments, supervised by parents, such as inviting a friend over to their house for a get-together.

Laugeson concluded:

“The class is very structured, and the skills are broken down into small rules and steps of social etiquette that give the teens specific actions they can take in response to a social situation. This method of instruction is very appealing to teens with autism because they tend to think concretely and literally and often learn by rote.

Furthermore, the program teaches skills used by socially accepted teens – not what adults believe adolescents show do. For instance, if adolescents with ASD are teased, most adults will tell teens to ignore the person, walk away or tell an adult.

But when you ask teens if this works, they say no. So we want to teach our teens to do what kids that are socially accepted are naturally doing. In this case, that would be to give a short comeback that shows what the person said didn’t bother them – like saying ‘whatever’ or ‘yeah, and?’ They learn not to take the bait.”

Written By Grace Rattue
Copyright: Medical News Today
Not to be reproduced without permission of Medical News Today

Visit our autism section for the latest news on this subject. “Evidence-Based Social Skills Training for Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders: The UCLA PEERS Program”
Elizabeth A. Laugeson, Fred Frankel, Alexander Gantman, Ashley R. Dillon and Catherine Mogil
Journal of Austism and Developmental Disorders, June 2012, doi: 10.1007/s10803-011-1339-1 Please use one of the following formats to cite this article in your essay, paper or report:

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Grace Rattue. “Autism In Teens – Teaching Social Skills Pays Off.” Medical News Today. MediLexicon, Intl., 19 Jun. 2012. Web.
20 Jun. 2012. APA

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‘Autism In Teens – Teaching Social Skills Pays Off’

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Teaching Social Skills To Autistic Teens Proves Effective Over Long Term

Main Category: Autism
Also Included In: Psychology / Psychiatry
Article Date: 14 Jun 2012 – 1:00 PDT Current ratings for:
‘Teaching Social Skills To Autistic Teens Proves Effective Over Long Term’
4 stars4 stars
Teenagers with autism spectrum disorder are in a bind. The disorder is characterized by impairments in communication and social interaction, but it’s a continuum, so some teens diagnosed with ASD are considered high functioning and healthy enough to be “mainstreamed” in school.

But without the proper social skills, even mainstreamed teens don’t quite fit into the general social milieu of middle school or high school. As a result, they suffer from all the slings and arrows of that world.

Since 2006, however, the UCLA PEERS (Program for the Education and Enrichment of Relational Skills) clinic has assisted high-functioning teens with ASD by literally teaching them the strategies they need to fit in better with their peers. And while previous research demonstrated that the program was effective, it wasn’t known whether the new skills “stuck” with these teens after they completed the PEERS classes.

In the current edition of the Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, Elizabeth Laugeson, director of the PEERS Clinic and a UCLA assistant clinical professor of psychiatry, and colleagues report that in a long-term follow-up study, they found that the skills taught and learned stayed with the kids – and in some cases even improved.

ASD includes a range of pervasive developmental disorders characterized by problems with communication and socialization; it’s estimated that one in 88 children born in the United States has some form of ASD.

The researchers’ findings show that the PEERS intervention resulted in significant improvements in social skills, as reported by parents and teachers using standardized measurements of social functioning. Reports from parents also suggested that teens’ ASD symptoms related to social responsiveness decreased significantly by the end of the class and even at the long-term, 14-week follow-up. In addition, the teens’ knowledge of social skills improved, as did the frequency of their get-togethers with their peers.

Teacher ratings of the teens’ social functioning in class also showed significant improvements at the long-term follow-up – an important finding, since the teachers did not know the teens had participated in the PEERS class.

Both parents and teachers also reported there were fewer problem behaviors with the teens 14 weeks after the program was over.

“Teens not only showed better social competence and greater understanding of social skills, but they were having more frequent get-togethers with their peers because they had developed the critical skills needed to make and keep friends,” said Laugeson, who also directs The Help Group-UCLA Autism Research Alliance.

Studies on the effectiveness of social-skills training for individuals with ASD indicate that intervention during childhood and adolescence is critical. However, very few evidence-based interventions focus on improving the social competence of teens with ASD, which makes the present findings unique and important, Laugeson said.

“This is exciting news,” she said. “It shows that teens with autism can learn social skills and that the tools stick even after the program is over, improving their quality of life and helping them to develop meaningful relationships and to feel more comfortable within their social world. The fact that these social skills are sticking is critical, because we need them to thrive throughout our lives.”

Laugeson attributes the power of the program to the parents. The PEERS classes, which focus on teaching the rules of social etiquette to teens, require parents to participate as well. In separate meetings, the parents are also provided with information on how to be social coaches for their teens in the real world. Many of the social skills taught are those most of us know intuitively: how to have a conversation (by trading information), showing good sportsmanship (“Hey, nice shot!”), and how to avoid bullying or deflect taunts (“Yeah, whatever”).

The classes meet for 90 minutes once a week for 14 weeks and include brief didactic instruction, role-playing demonstrations, behavioral rehearsal exercises for teens to practice newly learned skills, in-class coaching with performance feedback, and weekly “homework” assignments, supervised by parents, such as inviting a friend over for a get-together at home.

“The class is very structured, and the skills are broken down into small rules and steps of social etiquette that give the teens specific actions they can take in response to a social situation,” Laugeson said. “This method of instruction is very appealing to teens with autism because they tend to think concretely and literally and often learn by rote.”

What makes this program even more unique, Laugeson said, is that it teaches the skills used by socially accepted teens – not what adults think teens should do. For example, if teens with ASD are teased, “most adults will tell teens to ignore the person, walk away or tell an adult,” she said. “But when you ask teens if this works, they say no. So we want to teach our teens to do what kids that are socially accepted are naturally doing. In this case, that would be to give a short comeback that shows what the person said didn’t bother them – like saying ‘whatever’ or ‘yeah, and?’ They learn not to take the bait.”

Article adapted by Medical News Today from original press release. Click ‘references’ tab above for source.
Visit our autism section for the latest news on this subject. Other authors of the study included Fred Frankel, Alexander Gantman and Catherine Mogil, all of UCLA, and Ashley R. Dillon of the Pacific Graduate School of Psychology. The research was supported by the National Institute of Mental Health (grants U54-MH-068172 and U54MH068172).
The authors report no conflict of interest.
University of California – Los Angeles Please use one of the following formats to cite this article in your essay, paper or report:

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Autism Disorder Spectrum Gets a Boost From Artificial Intelligence

Our nation’s challenge with autism is real, and it is significant – this is not something we can pretend away, or hope it will disappear – it won’t. Thankfully, there is a large group of folks working to solve this problem. I’d like to take a few minutes to speak to you about all this because it has been a topic of conversation at our think tank for quite a number of years.

Now then, just to give you an example of some of what is being done to get a handle on the enormity of this problem – consider this new innovation. The MedGadget Website has a very cool innovation listed on April 19, 2012 in an article with a nice graphic display titled; “Autworks: A Web-Based Tool to Diagnose Autism,” by Jan Sinnige. The article/essay stated;

“In the latest issue of Nature Translational Psychiatry, researchers from the Center for Biomedical Informatics at Harvard Medical School published a new algorithm to detect autism much quicker. They developed a web-based tool to complete these questionnaires and tested the contribution of each survey question individually to diagnose the autism disorder. They found that only seven questions were sufficient for an accurate diagnosis.”

Interestingly enough, autism diagnoses have increased drastically and one study indicated that autism occurs now in 1 out of every 88 children, if this is the case, it’s beyond epidemic proportions. An article worthy of your consideration on this was written by Shirley S. Wang published on March 20, 2012 titled; “Autism Diagnoses Up Sharply in the US,” and as I was discussing this with a local county case worker here specializing in adult autism cases she speculated that the increase was two-fold.

First, there is much more awareness these days, therefore any mental anomalies would be duly noted, plus, there were an increase in cases. Some grad students I spoke with from the University of Riverside had put together a diagnosis matrix, which was helping them identify where on the autism spectrum each student in High School Special Ed was at, thus making it easier to teach to their specific needs since the spectrum is so large.

From high functioning autistic conditions to those which are completely debilitating there are solutions to helping individuals through school and life – able to live on their own and enjoy a fruitful life. We are a strong and powerful nation – we have the will to help those who need it most. We can do this. Think on it.

Lance Winslow has written an eBook for the Autism Community to help in raising funds Future Concepts. Lance is a retired Founder of a Nationwide Franchise Chain, and now runs the Online Think Tank.

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Modifying Behavior With A Protein

Editor’s Choice
Main Category: Schizophrenia
Also Included In: Psychology / Psychiatry;  Autism;  Mental Health
Article Date: 29 May 2012 – 16:00 PDT Current ratings for:
‘Modifying Behavior With A Protein’
4 and a half stars5 stars
A study featured in the journal Cell Reports has revealed the discovery of a protein that is essential to maintain behavioral flexibility. It enables people to modify their behavior to adjust to similar, yet not identical previous experiences. The findings may provide a better understanding of autism and schizophrenia, diseases that are characterized by impaired behavioral flexibility.

Stored memories that we have experienced previously enable us to repeat certain tasks. For example, we remember certain routes that we have driven previously. However, when circumstances change and our usual route is blocked for some reason, we have to find an alternative way to get to our destination. These changes are possible due to our behavioral flexibility in order for us to complete the task and they are partially driven by protein synthesis, which produces experience-dependent changes in neural function and behavior.

In many people, this process is impaired, meaning they are unable to adjust their behavior when faced with different circumstances than those they are accustomed to. The researchers set out to investigate how protein synthesis is regulated during behavioral flexibility and decided to focus on the kinase PERK, an enzyme that regulates protein synthesis and that modifies eIF2alpha, a factor required for proper protein synthesis.

The team conducted an experiment in two groups of ordinary lab mice of which one group had the PERK enzyme and the other group did not. The mice had to navigate a water maze in which they had to lift themselves onto a platform to get out of the water. Both groups of mice accomplished to learn how to complete the task. The next step was to move the platform to a different location within the maze, which allowed the team to study the mice’s behavioral flexibility in response to the change. The observed that the mice with PERK managed to locate the platform, whilst those lacking PERK were either unable to do so or it took them considerably longer to complete the task.

The researchers then decided to examine how PERK assists mice in terms of their behavioral flexibility. They conducted a second experiment, in which both normal and mice without PERK heard an audible tone followed by a mild foot shock. Both groups of mice developed a normal response of fear, i.e. they froze when hearing the tone, anticipating the foot shock. The team then removed the foot shock from the procedure so that the mice only heard the tone. After a while they observed that the normal mice adjusted their responses and did not freeze after hearing the tone anymore, whilst the mice lacking PERK continued to respond as if they expected a foot shock to follow.

In order to support their findings that the absence of PERK may contribute to impaired behavioral flexibility in human neurological disorders the team conducted postmortem analyses of human frontal cortex samples from patients afflicted with schizophrenia, who often exhibit behavioral inflexibility, as well as from healthy individuals. They discovered that the healthy individuals’ samples had normal levels of PERK, whilst those from schizophrenic patients had considerably lower levels of the protein.

Eric Klann, a professor in NYU’s Center for Neural Science, who co-authored the study, concluded:

“A rapidly expanding list of neurological disorders and neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and Fragile X syndrome, have already been linked to aberrant protein synthesis. Our results show the significance of PERK in maintaining behavioral flexibility and how its absence might be associated with schizophrenia. Further studies clarifying the specific role of PERK-regulated protein synthesis in the brain may provide new avenues to tackle such widespread and often debilitating neurological disorders.”

Written By Petra Rattue
Copyright: Medical News Today
Not to be reproduced without permission of Medical News Today

Visit our schizophrenia section for the latest news on this subject. Brain-Specific Disruption of the eIF2a Kinase PERK Decreases ATF4 Expression and Impairs Behavioral Flexibility
Mimi A. Trinh, Hanoch Kaphzan, Ronald C. Wek, Phillippe Pierre, Douglas R. Cavener, Eric Klann
Cell Reports, May 2012, doi: 10.1016/j.celrep.2012.04.010 Please use one of the following formats to cite this article in your essay, paper or report:

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Petra Rattue. “Modifying Behavior With A Protein.” Medical News Today. MediLexicon, Intl., 29 May. 2012. Web.
1 Jun. 2012. APA

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‘Modifying Behavior With A Protein’

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Researchers Identify Protein Necessary For Behavioral Flexibility

Main Category: Schizophrenia
Also Included In: Autism;  Psychology / Psychiatry
Article Date: 28 May 2012 – 0:00 PDT Current ratings for:
‘Researchers Identify Protein Necessary For Behavioral Flexibility’
3 stars3 and a half stars
Researchers have identified a protein necessary to maintain behavioral flexibility, which allows us to modify our behaviors to adjust to circumstances that are similar, but not identical, to previous experiences. Their findings, which appear in the journal Cell Reports, may offer new insights into addressing autism and schizophrenia – afflictions marked by impaired behavioral flexibility.

Our stored memories from previous experiences allow us to repeat certain tasks. For instance, after driving to a particular location, we recall the route the next time we make that trip. However, sometimes circumstances change – one road on the route is temporarily closed – and we need to make adjustments to reach our destination. Our behavioral flexibility allows us to make such changes and, then, successfully complete our task. It is driven, in part, by protein synthesis, which produces experience-dependent changes in neural function and behavior.

However, this process is impaired for many, preventing an adjustment in behavior when faced with different circumstances. In the Cell Reports study, the researchers sought to understand how protein synthesis is regulated during behavioral flexibility.

To do so, they focused on the kinase PERK, an enzyme that regulates protein synthesis. PERK is known to modify eIF2alpha, a factor that is required for proper protein synthesis. Their experiments involved comparing normal lab mice, which possessed the enzyme, with those that lacked it.

In their study, the mice were asked to navigate a water maze, which included elevating themselves onto a platform to get out of the water. Normal mice and those lacking PERK learned to complete this task.

However, in a second step, the researchers tested the mice’s behavioral flexibility by moving the maze’s platform to another location, thereby requiring them to respond to a change in the terrain. Here, the normal mice located the platform, but those lacking PERK were unable to do so or took significantly more time to complete the task.

A second experiment offered a different test of the role of PERK in aiding behavioral flexibility. In this measure, both normal and mutant mice heard an audible tone that was followed by a mild foot shock. At this stage, all of the mice developed a normal fear response – freezing at the tone in anticipation of the foot shock. However, the researchers subsequently removed the foot shock from the procedure and the mice heard only the tone. Eventually, the normal mice adjusted their responses so they did not freeze after hearing the tone. However, the mutant mice continued to respond as if they expected a foot shock to follow.

The researchers sought additional support for their conclusion that the absence of PERK may contribute to impaired behavioral flexibility in human neurological disorders. To do so, they conducted postmortem analyses of human frontal cortex samples from patients afflicted with schizophrenia, who often exhibit behavioral inflexibility, and unaffected individuals. The samples from the control group showed normal levels of PERK while those from the schizophrenic patients had significantly reduced levels of the protein.

“A rapidly expanding list of neurological disorders and neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and Fragile X syndrome, have already been linked to aberrant protein synthesis,” explained Eric Klann, a professor in NYU’s Center for Neural Science and one of the study’s co-authors. “Our results show the significance of PERK in maintaining behavioral flexibility and how its absence might be associated with schizophrenia. Further studies clarifying the specific role of PERK-regulated protein synthesis in the brain may provide new avenues to tackle such widespread and often debilitating neurological disorders.”

Article adapted by Medical News Today from original press release. Click ‘references’ tab above for source.
Visit our schizophrenia section for the latest news on this subject. The study’s other co-authors were: Mimi Trinh, who recently completed her Ph.D. in NYU’s Center for Neural Science; Hanoch Kaphzan, a former post-doctoral fellow in NYU’s Center for Neural Science and now at the University of Haifa in Israel; Ronald Wek, a professor at Indiana University School of Medicine; Philippe Pierre, a group leader at France’s Université de la Méditerranée; and Douglas Cavener, a professor at Penn State’s Department of Biology.

New York University

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Autism Spectrum Disorder

INTRODUCTION

Every parent has hopes and dreams for their children and all parents want their kids to

be the best and even though no one is ever perfect, they would still try to make them

perfect, But all this may be shattered once this little boy or girl gets diagnosed with

one of the most alarming disorders in the world of childhood disorders which is not

only a serious disability; but is also a bewildering one this disorder is called Autism.

A. Title:

Autism Spectrum Disorder

B. Why Autism?

there were six childhood psychological disorders other then autism that any person would find very interesting to do a research about, but autism is found to be one of the most dangerous and confusing childhood disorder any parent can find also learning a bit about autism in Oman made it very important to talk and explain this disorder to Omani parents and the Omani community as a whole.

C. Purpose:

To spread awareness on the Autistic Spectrum Disorder in Oman and this will have a great and positive impact on the treatment of the Omani children that were diagnosed with Autism.

 

 

D. Objectives:
To give the reader a clear and detailed information on the Autistic Spectrum Disorder.
To spread awareness on the Autistic Spectrum Disorder to the Omani people in specific.
E. Limits and Difficulties:
The time given before the dead-line was not enough.
References like books, articles, etc… Related to the subject were very limited.

 

F. Methodology:

The methods used to complete this report included reading from different sources including: Books, Magazines, and Web sites also visiting The Muscat Autism Center was very helpful.

 

 

 

 

 

Autism Spectrum Disorder

The Root of the word “Autism:

The word Autism comes or drives from the Greek word “Auto” which means self, and the adjective word “Autistic” literally means alone.

In the world of psychology and psychiatry autism or Autistic Spectrum Disorder is defined as:

A life-long brain disorder that is normally diagnosed in early childhood.
A disorder that causes kids to experience the world differently from the way most other kids do.
A complex developmental disability that typically appears during the first three years of life and affects a person’s ability to communicate and interact with others.

The history of Autism:

The word “Autism” was first used in 1943 by a psychiatric and physician called Leo Kanner who wrote a paper on “Autistic Disturbance of Attitude contact ” for a journal called: nervous child” which does not exist anymore, Dr. Leo wrote that article after conducting a research on 11 children of ages between two to eight years old who had similar symptoms which included difficulties communicating with others, difficulties interacting with others, and having unusual interests. Before the publication of that article children with the previous symptoms were labeled as “schizophrenic”. (Kocgel & Lazebnik)

 

Types of Autism

 

There are many types of autism some are known while others are not known, but there are 5 main types that most researchers agree with, which are:

1) Classic Autism:

This type can be recognized before the age of 3 years, but can be diagnosed later in life. Children diagnosed with classic autism show lack of eye to eye contact, lack of affection or emotional contact with others, difficulty to socialize and interact with others, intense wish for sameness in routine, and develop language late or not at all.

Children diagnosed with Classic autism also show high levels of Visio -spatial skills* but major difficulties in other areas.

2) Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) which  includes:

A)    Aspergers Syndrome:

Is a form of autism in which speech development and IQ are normal, but in which social disabilities can be compounded by depression and mental health problems [1]. This syndrome is a higher functioning disorder than classic autism and can range from mild to saver. A child diagnosed with Aspergers Syndrome can exhibit a number of characteristics, show deficiencies in social skills and have difficulties with transition or change ( they compulsively stick to rituals and any changes in their routine can upset them), they also find it difficult to read body language and to determine the proper body space.

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Some of the kids that were diagnosed with Aspergers Syndrome have shown reduced sensitivity to pain & an increased sensitivity to bright light and loud noises.

*Visual Spatial Learners have a very wide imagination, that helps them make a whole movie just by reading something, that is because they can draw a picture in their mind about anything they read or hear.

 

B)  Rett Syndrome or Rex Syndrome:

This is a neurological & developmental disorder that is marked by poor head growth. Some doctors claim that Rett or Rex Syndrome is not a part of autism spectrum disorder, the reason behind this claim is that Rett or Rex Syndrome is a disorder that mostly occurs in females whereas autism affects mostly males.

Children suffering from this syndrome show loss of muscle tone, diminished eye contact, and crawling or walking problems, they also stop using their hands and often develop stereotyped hand movements such as: wringing, clapping, or patting their hands. Kids diagnosed with Rett or Rex Syndrome loses the ability to perform motor skills.

C) Childhood Disintegrative Disorder (CDD):

This disorder occurs a little late in the child’s life, first the child seems perfectly normal then by the age of 2-4 years they start to regress, where they stop socializing with people, loss potty-training skills, stop playing, and stop making friends. The difference between autism and CDD is the long period of normal development below age 2. (Bock & Stauth, 1999)

D) Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS):

A child that exhibits some but not all of the classic autism symptoms is said to have PDD-NOS.

Children with PDD-NOS either do not fully meet the criteria of symptoms used to diagnose any of the four specific types of autism or do not have the degree of impairment described in any of the above four specific types.

Causes of Autism

Until this very day no one knows what the exact cause of autism is the only thing that is clear is that autism affects 1 of 150 kids.

The brain contains over 100 billion nerve cells called neurons. Each neuron may have hundreds or thousands of connections that carry massages to other nerve cells in the brain and body. The connections and the chemical messengers (called neurotransmitters) let the neurons that help you see, move, remember, and work together as they should, but for some reason some of the cells and connections in the brain of a kid with autism –especially those that affect communication, emotion, and senses- don’t develop properly or get damaged. Scientists are still trying to understand how and why this happens [1].

Is lack of a mother’s affection a cause for autism?

While the definite causes of autism is not yet found or clear, it is clear that there is no any connection between bad parenting or having a cold mother and the development of autism.

At first Dr. Leo Kanner, the psychiatrist who first described autism as a unique condition in 1943, believed that it was caused by cold, unloving mothers. Bruno Bettelheim, a renowned professor of child development supported this misinterpretation of autism. Their promotion of the idea that unloving mothers caused their children’s autism created a generation of parents who carried the tremendous burden of guilt for their children’s disability.

In the 1960s and 70s, Dr. Bernard Remand, the father of a son with autism, who later founded the Autism Society of America and the Autism Research Institute, helped the medical community understand that autism is not caused by cold parents but rather is a biological disorder.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The diagnosis of Autism

There are no any biological tests that can be done to detect if a child is suffering from autism or not, the diagnosis of autism depends solely on observation and also educational and psychological testing.

An autism-specific screening tool, such as the Modified Checklist of Autism in Toddlers (MCHAT) should be used. The MCHAT is a list of simple questions about the child. The answers determine whether he or she should be referred to a specialist, usually a Developmental Pediatrician, a Neurologist, a Psychiatrist or a Psychologist, for further evaluation.

What do doctors do?

Often, specialists work together as a team to figure out what is wrong. The team might include a pediatrician, a pediatric neurologist, a pediatric develop- mentalist, a child psychiatrist, a child psychologist, speech and language therapists, and others. The team members study how the child plays, learns, communicates, and behaves. The team listens carefully to what parents have noticed, too. Using the information they have gathered doctors can decide whether a child has autism or not.

DSM-IV criteria for a diagnosis of Autism:

A total of six (or more) items from heading (A), (B), and (C), with at least two from (A), and one each from (B) and (C):

(A) Qualitative impairment in social interaction, as manifested by at least two of the following:

• Marked impairments in the use of multiple nonverbal behaviors such as eye-to- eye gaze, facial expression, body posture, and gestures to regulate social interaction.
• Failure to develop peer relationships appropriate to developmental level.
• A lack of spontaneous seeking to share enjoyment, interests, or achievements with other people, (e.g., by a lack of showing, bringing, or pointing out objects of interest to other people).
• A lack of social or emotional reciprocity.

(B) Qualitative impairments in communication as manifested by at least one of the following:

• Delay in or total lack of, the development of spoken language (not accompanied by an attempt to compensate through alternative modes of communication such as gesture or mime).
• In individuals with adequate speech, marked impairment in the ability to initiate or sustain a conversation with others.
• Stereotyped and repetitive use of language or idiosyncratic language.
• Lack of varied, spontaneous make-believe play or social imitative play appropriate to developmental level.

(C) Restricted repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior, interests and activities, as manifested by at least two of the following:

• Encompassing preoccupation with one or more stereotyped and restricted patterns of interest that is abnormal either in intensity or focus.
• Apparently inflexible adherence to specific, nonfunctional routines or rituals.
• Stereotyped and repetitive motor mannerisms (e.g. Hand or finger flapping or twisting, or complex whole-body movements).
• Persistent preoccupation with parts of objects.

II. Delays or abnormal functioning in at least one of the following areas, with onset prior to age 3 years:

(A) Social interaction.
(B) Language is used in social communication.
(C) Symbolic or imaginative play.

III. The disturbance is not better accounted for by Rett’s Disorder or Childhood Disintegrative Disorder.[1]

 

 

 

 

 

[1] (diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders , fourth edition)

 

Treatments used to cure clients diagnosed with Autism

There is no cure for autism but there are treatments that will help reduce the intense of the disorder and help the child and the family cope with the disorder.

Treatment for autism is a very intensive, comprehensive undertaking that involves the child’s entire family and a team of professionals. Some programs may take place in the child’s home with professionals and trained therapists and may include Parent Training for the child under supervision of a professional. Some programs are delivered in a specialized center, classroom or preschool.

There are many therapies and treatments for autism here are some of the most common ones [1] :

Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA)
Pivotal Response Therapy (PRT)
Verbal therapy
Floor time
Relationship Development Intervention

 

 

 

 

 

[1] (http://www.autismspeaks.org/treatment/floortime.php)

Autism in Oman

As mention in the beginning of the report the main objective from this report is to spread introduce the “Autism Spectrum Disorder” to the Omani people, because after a field research that was made in Oman on children suffering from autism the number 4000,200,1, and 0 was the result of this research.

What does 4000, 200, 1, and 0 stand for?

4000 = number cases of autism in Oman.

200 = number of cases diagnosed in Oman.

1 = number of child psychiatry clinic in Oman.

0 = the future number of undiagnosed cases of autism in Oman.

After reading and understanding the above number it is belived that no more words or discussion is need accept:

“There is a problem you are the solution. There is a dream, you make it real”

Dr. Yahya Al-Farsi

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Conclusion

Autism Spectrum Disorder is a very scary developmental disorder that deserves special attention, and having as much knowledge about this disorder makes it easier to notice it and diagnosing it earlier and this will help lower the risk of it becoming a sever and un-curable disorder.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


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