Tag Archives: Prognosis

Question?: Rett Syndrome Genetics

George asks…

what is autism?

Im not sure what that is

admin answers:

Autism is a brain development disorder that impairs social interaction and communication, and causes restricted and repetitive behavior, all starting before a child is three years old. This set of signs distinguishes autism from milder autism spectrum disorders (ASD) such as Asperger syndrome.[2]

Autism has a strong genetic basis, although the genetics of autism are complex and it is unclear whether ASD is explained more by multigene interactions or by rare mutations.[3] In rare cases, autism is strongly associated with agents that cause birth defects.[4] Other proposed causes, such as childhood vaccines, are controversial and the vaccine hypotheses lack convincing scientific evidence.[5] Most recent reviews estimate a prevalence of one to two cases per 1,000 people for autism, and about six per 1,000 for ASD, with ASD averaging a 4.3:1 male-to-female ratio. The number of people known to have autism has increased dramatically since the 1980s, at least partly due to changes in diagnostic practice; the question of whether actual prevalence has increased is unresolved.[6]

Autism affects many parts of the brain; how this occurs is poorly understood. Parents usually notice signs in the first two years of their child’s life. Early behavioral or cognitive intervention can help children gain self-care, social, and communication skills. There is no cure.[7] Few children with autism live independently after reaching adulthood, but some become successful,[8] and an autistic culture has developed, with some seeking a cure and others believing that autism is a condition rather than a disorder.[9]

* 1 Classification
* 2 Characteristics
o 2.1 Social development
o 2.2 Communication
o 2.3 Repetitive behavior
o 2.4 Other symptoms
* 3 Causes
* 4 Mechanism
o 4.1 Pathophysiology
o 4.2 Neuropsychology
* 5 Screening
* 6 Diagnosis
* 7 Management
* 8 Prognosis
* 9 Epidemiology
* 10 History
* 11 References
* 12 External links


Autism is a brain development disorder that first gives signs during infancy or childhood and follows a steady course without remission or relapse.[2] Impairments result from maturation-related changes in various systems of the brain.[10] Autism is one of the five pervasive developmental disorders (PDD), which are characterized by widespread abnormalities of social interactions and communication, and severely restricted interests and highly repetitive behavior.[2]
Hans Asperger introduced the modern sense of the word autism in 1938.
Hans Asperger introduced the modern sense of the word autism in 1938.[11]

Of the other four PDD forms, Asperger syndrome is closest to autism in signs and likely causes; Rett syndrome and childhood disintegrative disorder share several signs with autism, but may have unrelated causes; PDD not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS) is diagnosed when the criteria are not met for a more specific disorder.[12] Unlike autism, Asperger’s has no substantial delay in language development.[13] The terminology of autism can be bewildering, with autism, Asperger’s and PDD-NOS often called the autism spectrum disorders (ASD)[7] or sometimes the autistic disorders,[14] whereas autism itself is often called autistic disorder, childhood autism, or infantile autism. In this article, autism refers to the classic autistic disorder, while other sources sometimes use autism or the autisms to refer to ASD,[15] or equate ASD with PDD.[16] ASD, in turn, is a subset of the broader autism phenotype (BAP), which describes individuals who may not have ASD but do have autistic-like traits, such as avoiding eye contact.[17]

The manifestations of autism cover a wide spectrum, ranging from individuals with severe impairments—who may be silent, mentally disabled, and locked into hand flapping and rocking—to less impaired individuals who may have active but distinctly odd social approaches, narrowly focused interests, and verbose, pedantic communication.[18] Sometimes the syndrome is divided into low-, medium- and high-functioning autism (LFA, MFA, and HFA), based on IQ thresholds,[19] or on how much support the individual requires in daily life; these subdivisions are not standardized and are controversial. Autism can also be divided into syndromal and non-syndromal autism, where the former is associated with severe or profound mental retardation or a congenital syndrome with physical symptoms, such as tuberous sclerosis.[20] Although individuals with Asperger’s tend to perform better cognitively than those with autism, the extent of the overlap between Asperger’s, HFA, and non-syndromal autism is unclear.[21]

Some studies have reported diagnoses of autism in children due to a loss of language or social skills after 14 months of age, as opposed to a failure to make progress. Several terms are used for this phenomenon, including regressive autism, setback autism, and developmental stagnation. The validity of this distinction remains controversial; it is possible that regressive autism is a specific subtype.[22][23][24]


Autism is distinguished by a pattern of symptoms rather than one single symptom. The main characteristics are impairments in social interaction, impairments in communication, restricted interests and repetitive behavior. Other aspects, such as atypical eating, are also common but are not essential for diagnosis.[25] Individual symptoms of autism occur in the general population and appear not to associate highly, without a sharp line separating pathological severity from common traits.[26]

Social development

People with autism have social impairments and often lack the intuition about others that many people take for granted. Noted autistic Temple Grandin described her inability to understand the social communication of neurotypicals as leaving her feeling “like an anthropologist on Mars”.[27]

Social impairments become apparent early in childhood and continue through adulthood. Autistic infants show less attention to social stimuli, smile and look at others less often, and respond less to their own name. Autistic toddlers have more striking social deviance; for example, they have less eye contact and anticipatory postures and are more likely to communicate by manipulating another person’s hand.[24] Three- to five-year-old autistic children are less likely to exhibit social understanding, approach others spontaneously, imitate and respond to emotions, communicate nonverbally, and take turns with others. However, they do form attachments to their primary caregivers.[28] They display moderately less attachment security than usual, although this feature disappears in children with higher mental development or less severe ASD.[29] Older children and adults with ASD perform worse on tests of face and emotion recognition.[30]

Contrary to common belief, autistic children do not prefer to be alone. Making and maintaining friendships often proves to be difficult for those with autism. For them, the quality of friendships, not the number of friends, predicts how lonely they are.[31]

There are many anecdotal reports, but few systematic studies, of aggression and violence in individuals with ASD. The limited data suggest that in children with mental retardation, autism is associated with aggression, destruction of property, and tantrums. Dominick et al. Interviewed the parents of 67 children with ASD and reported that about two-thirds of the children had periods of severe tantrums and about one-third had a history of aggression, with tantrums significantly more common than in children with a history of language impairment.[32]


About a third to a half of individuals with autism do not develop enough natural speech to meet their daily communication needs.[33] Differences in communication may be present from the first year of life, and may include delayed onset of babbling, unusual gestures, diminished responsiveness, and the desynchronization of vocal patterns with the caregiver. In the second and third years, autistic children have less frequent and less diverse babbling, consonants, words, and word combinations; their gestures are less often integrated with words. Autistic children are less likely to make requests or share experiences, and are more likely to simply repeat others’ words (echolalia)[23][34] or reverse pronouns.[35] Joint attention seems to be necessary for functional speech, and deficits in joint attention seem to distinguish infants with ASD:[1] for example, they may look at a pointing hand instead of the pointed-at object,[24][34] and they consistently fail to point to “comment” about or “share” an experience at age-appropriate times.[1] Autistic children may have difficulty with imaginative play and with developing symbols into language.[23][34]

In a pair of studies, high-functioning autistic children aged 8–15 performed equally well, and adults better than individually matched controls at basic language tasks involving vocabulary and spelling. Both autistic groups performed worse than controls at complex language tasks such as figurative language, comprehension and inference. As people are often sized up initially from their basic language skills, these studies suggest that people speaking to autistic individuals are more likely to overestimate what their audience comprehends.[36]

Repetitive behavior
A young boy with autism, and the precise line of toys he made
A young boy with autism, and the precise line of toys he made

Autistic individuals display many forms of repetitive or restricted behavior, which the Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised (RBS-R)[37] categorizes as follows.

* Stereotypy is apparently purposeless movement, such as hand flapping, head rolling, or body rocking.
* Comp

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Question?: Pdd

William asks…

What are the chances of my PDD-NOS preschooler eventually joining the mainstream?

Our daughter, 3.5, has been in therapy for developmental delays since the age of 14 months; we got a diagnosis of PDD-NOS about a year ago. She currently attends a special needs preschool. She is verbal, but her speech is stilted: she cannot have a conversation, and all utterances are either requests or narration. She does not ask any questions yet, and her social skills are extremely delayed, as are her fine motor skills. Gross motor is delayed but not as badly. Focus and attention to task is very hard for her; sensory issues cause her to be in near-constant movement.

In addition to the SN school setting, she receives speech therapy, PT, OT, play therapy, and 10 hours of ABA. We have not tried any biomedical interventions aside from fish oil supplements, as per her developmental pediatrician. We expect her to be in special education for the foreseeable future, but it gnaws at me constantly to think that she may not be able to live independently or someday join the mainstream.

admin answers:

My response to your question is a composite of my own thinking and experience, and research in the field of autism/PDD.

Continuing with effective and intensive intervention programs can make a huge difference in the outcome for your daughter.

The current thinking in the autistic community is that autism is a puzzle to which we do not yet have all the pieces. Our children are also like the pieces of a puzzle which need to be connected together to make a fully integrated, unified child.

YOu are already using ABA to help create structure and meaning and build upon your daughter’s strengths and abilities. The highest levels of success with ABA are achieved when a child receives at least 30 hours a week of one-on-one therapy. ABA- type therapies have been statistically shown to improve the prognosis of virtually all autistic children, so if you can increase ABA I would do it, making sure, of course, that the therapist is a very good one. (I did not really believe in the benefits of ABA until my daughter started working with children and youth with autism.)

Additionally speech therapy is of utmost importance – continue with as much as possible. Prognosis is markedly better for individuals who develop some meaningful verbal language before the age of 5 years.

Keep your daughter as engaged in the outside world and stimulated as much as possible during the day in activities that provide an external structure for building meaning, comprehension and organization. Provide ample opportunities for her to use new behviors she learns in real life situations.

As you know PPD-NOS is a life-long disability. There are no cures, and even those individuals who proclaim themselves “recovered” continue to have difficulties with subtle social processes. The most accurate predictor of outcome is the amount of progress over a period of about 1 year from early diagnosis. However, with advances in education, early intervention, and research, today individuals with Autism/PDD have a greatly expanded range of outcomes as adults. Current trends, based on increased knowledge of how to educate children with Autism and the importance of early education, emphasize building skills and abilities in order to prepare young adults with Autism/PDD to work, to live in the community, and in some cases, to pursue higher education. Outcome appears to depend on both degree of overall impairment and intensity of educational interventions.

Systematic and intensive educational programming can make a huge difference. You will have to specifically teach your daughter many of the things other kids may learn vicariously. But most likely she can learn many of these skills. Unfortunately not enough is known about PDD to accurately predict yet how individual children will progress. As your daughter gets older better prediction will be possible.

Before your child reaches school age search out the best schools to address her needs, as not all schools deal with your daughter’s type of issues well. Try to make sure when she starts school that she is placed in the highest functioning environment possible so that her skills will be enhanced. Continue to focus strongly on the language and social issues.

I am not aware of any findings that suggest biomedical interventions make a difference.

If you are in the US become very familiar with the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) to be sure you understand your rights and your daughter’s rights.

Your daughter is very fortunate that she has had such early intervention and a wealth of it.

I have included some links which you may already be aware of. I hope these thoughts are of some help to you. YOu sound like you are an excellent advocate for your daughter. That will make an immense difference to her progress and her life.

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Question?: Pdd-nos

Linda asks…

does a child with pdd-nos have hope of being normal in the future?

my 22 month old son was diagnosed with pdd-nos a month ago in april of 2009.. i hear pdd-nos is like a step away from not having it at all..(whatever that means). i was just wondering can pdd-nos go away wit the program,early intervention, he will start getting soon or is this something he will definitely deal with for his entire life?

admin answers:

That is supposed to mean like barely being on the autistic spectrum. Unfortunatly, that isn’t accurate. PDD-NOS is usually diagnosed when your child doesn’t quite meet all the criteria for Autism.

Your son will learn and grow, and early intervention is one of the steps towards overcoming his symptoms of pdd-nos. It is way to early, and there isn’t nearly enough information here to suggest any type of prognosis for your son. Working with early intervention, the school, and on your own with your son are all important in helping him overcome as many of his symptoms as possible.

The following is what I’ve done that has helped my daughter. No matter how young your child is, start using social stories! Get used to making them up on the fly. Get familiar with the format. Go to http://www.thegraycenter.org/ to learn more and to see samples. Basically, a social story is a script for your child to help them understand proper behavior in a situation, give words to the different feelings they might have, and give them a resolution/solution. Since social situations are so difficult for our kids, they need concrete information to learn to navigate.

I remember when my daughter was 3 and this advice was given to me. Absurd I thought, she’s doesn’t have the receptive language to understand…The stories are to complex and long. She won’t get it. Finally, after hearing enough people talk about it, I gave in and tried.

As an example, daughter had a huge issue with me making right turns on a red light. She had just connected the fact that red light means stop! If you’re walking and you see a red light…STOP. If you’re driving, apparently you were supposed to stop in place when you saw red. Turning on red was absolutly forbidden in her mind, we’re talking major tantrums in the car over this. Yes it would be easy just to stop making right turns on red lights, but the world doesn’t revolve around her. She needed to learn the rules of the world. I started by pointing out other cars that were making right turns on red lights. I repeated over and over “Right turn red light ok”. A very simple social story. Eventually she got the message that it was ok, and the tantrums stopped.

At first the social stories were very simple, and verbal. As her reading skills quickly developed and showed to be a strong learning channel, I would write them as well. I can now make up social stories on the fly, and give her the script. They don’t work immediatly, but do soak in over time and make a difference.

Understand that people will stare when your child is having a tantrum. People aren’t necessarily mean, but they’re often ignorant about autism. People will offer you all sorts of unsolicited advice on how you should handle the situation at hand… I’ve heard everything from “She needs a nap” to “It’s ok to spank her you know” as well as some really awful obnoxious comments. How much you tell others is your personal choice. Me, I’m an open book and I’ve educated many in my community about my daughter and her autism. Many at the stores we frequent know her and have watched her grow up. They’re more tolerant, and have been known to shut down rude shoppers who have commented on my daughter’s behavior when she’s been “off”. You need to learn to develop a thick skin, and to shut out the world around you to focus on your child. Don’t be afraid to get down on the ground with your child when out in public and they’re really upset. Stay calm and focused on helping your child. It gets really easy to tune everything else out, and it’s kind of amazing. When you act this way, you actually get more understanding from strangers. They can tell by your actions that you’ve got the situation under control (whether you do or not) and are not a neglectful parent with a bratty kid.

Along those lines, to develop that thick skin and ability to tune out the ignorance, take your child EVERYWHERE that you can. YES it’s very hard work, but if you think of it as therapy, which it is, you’ll understand the importance. It was way easier for me to go grocery shopping alone, but I took my daughter as often as humanly possible. Expose your child as often as possible to a variety of situations. Use the social stories to explain in their terms what they’re experiencing. The more often you can do this, the better. Again, this is HARD WORK! But so worth it. If it’s really really hard, don’t make it a grocery shopping trip, but just a trip to buy milk or cereal. One or two items then work your way up.

The more exposure to the world the better. This helps with rigidity issues as well as learning social cues and scripts.

Don’t always drive the same route or follow the same routine. Although routine is so very important to children with autism, trust me, you don’t want to get to entrenched. Flexibility is also an issue, children with autism tend to be rather inflexible. By changing routines frequently, your child will learn to live with change without too much trauma.

I know you didn’t ask for all the above information, but knowing what it’s like to be in your shoes, wondering what to do, I thought I’d offer it up anyways.

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The Many Signs of Autism

If you are the parent of a newborn or young child and are worried about them being autistic, you will be interested in knowing that the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) have concluded that as many as one child in every 100 may be suffering with Autism. It is recommended that you begin observing your child as early as possible. Research has proven that the earlier a child is professionally diagnosed with the disorder, the easier it will be to treat the disorder and have the prognosis for a good outcome.

So what are the signs of Autism that you should be looking for? According to the NIMH (National Institute of Mental Health), the following are the warning signs of the disorder that you should be looking for in order to determine the possibility of your child being affected:

– They are not babbling, making meaningful gestures, or pointing by the time they are a year old
– They do not interact joyfully with others or smile
– They do not respond to their name when called
– They do not seem to know or understand how to play with their toys
– They exhibit poor eye contact
– They get attached to one specific object or toy
– They haven’t combined two words by the time they are 2 years old
– They haven’t spoken one word by the time they have reached 16 months of age
– They line up objects or their toys
– They lose acquired language or social skills
– They oftentimes appear to be hearing impaired or ignoring you

Granted, there could be a number of other explanations besides Autism for any of the above behaviors. For instance, the fact that a child spends time lining up objects or toys or shows a significant attachment to a particular object or toy is not a definitive sign of the disorder being present. Conversely, a child with excellent language skills could still be diagnosed with Autism. In fact, it is known that children have extraordinary language and reading skills despite the fact that they have been diagnosed with Asperger’s Syndrome.

Currently, there are other possible indicators of the disorder which is typically diagnosed by a process of interviewing the parents about the child and observing the child at the same time. However, a number of researchers have found several correlations between Autism and certain physical issues. In some instances, signs of Autism could be apparent could be present at birth.

The most important thing to remember is that observation of one’s child is critical. If you are suspicious of your child being affected with the disorder and you are seeing what you feel are signs of Autism, consult your child’s pediatrician or family physician immediately. Remember that the best course of action is to have the child diagnosed as early in life as possible. The sooner the child is diagnosed, the sooner they can start treatment and possibly witness a better outcome.

For the latest videos and training information on child development as well as books and curricula on Autism please visit childdevelopmentmedia.com.

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Childhood & Autism

Childhood & Autism

Impairment in Language Use
Many autistic children do not reach the level of active language use. When there is no significant development in language skills before the age of six, the prognosis is dim and the child will stay autistic. Passive use of language (understanding spoken language) might be well developed, even though this might not seem obvious.

Speech develops more slowly and is filled with unripe elements and a different syntax. These children often do not talk about themselves as I but in the second or third person (pronominal reversal). They also tend to imitate adults with the same intonation or by changing each sentence in a question (echolalia). Some children copy the adult’s language perfectly without understanding exactly what the real meaning is (delayed echolalia). They often use a language with their own words and word combinations from existing words: neologism. Their voice melody is even, metallic or insecure questioning.
Other people’s sayings are taken literally (literalness). Humor, jokes, etc. can thus become very threatening to an autistic child.
What You Should Know About Autism Spectrum Disorders

Impairment in the handling of information
Oversensitivity to sensory sensations makes these children often react with panic or anxiety when confronted with sudden or hefty sensations such as harsh noises or changes in light and darkness.

The skin can also be seen as a large sensory organ, and their skin isn’t considered as a division between themselves and their surroundings. They are very receptive to changes in mood in their vicinity. They can, however, shut out outside impressions by pretending to be deaf or simply pretending not being able to see you. Sometimes they will lock themselves in a cupboard. Sometimes they can become panicky or start a screaming fit due to a small scratch on their hand, while a severe injury on for example their foot will hardly evoke a reaction.

The way they handle food might also be different. They might reject all kinds of food or might for instance only enjoy porridge; their senses are often used in a sensopatic (feel and act) manner: moving fingers quickly back and forth near their ears, moving their open hand up and down in front of their eyes, losing themselves in the changing light fall.

Some may kick on hearing noises. Background sounds are often heard in a crystal clear manner. There is a weak integration of sensory input. Keeping a bird’s eye view and being able to distinguish important from unimportant things is lacking or costs a lot of effort. They often like to smell things or people and often put objects in their mouth.

Remarkably, a lot of these children are fond of music or even musically talented.

Impairment in the motoric and motorial development
Motoric development of a child suffering from autism is usually delayed. Often this development shows leaps and bounds in different dimensions: long periods of status quo, then a sudden acceleration, sometimes after an illness. The rough and fine motor system is often unripe or lagging behind. You can often see stereotyped or ritual behavior like rhythmically walking back and forth. Excitement can lead to fluttering hands and tiptoe walking.

Older children often move their upper body forwards and backwards. Sudden panic or anger can lead to shouting fits accompanied with hitting, kicking or spitting on others.

Sometimes auto mutilation occurs, where the inwardly directed anger can be focused on specific senses, sometimes on other parts of the body, for instance head banging. Over-activity can be alternated with periods of stillness. Facial expressions are often plain and express stupefaction. When they are small, these children often make a perfect, beautiful impression: these are princes or elf children.

Impairment in cognitive development
Nowadays it is assumed that about half of the children suffering autism function on a mentally handicapped level. Some of these children have partial, very talented powers such as a phenomenal memory for figures or certain events. Their imagination and thoughts are very visually oriented.

Working with non-speaking autistics through ‘supportive communication’ has taught us that they are capable of intelligent thoughts but at the same time they have difficulty using language as a medium to express these thoughts. It is clear that ‘normal’ intelligent tests are not fit to work with the autistic child’s different level of consciousness.

Tagged as: Childhood & Autism

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Autistic Pdd – Guide to Pdd-NOS, Rett’s and CDD to Help You

Autistic Pdd

Autism spectrum disorder has other categories, which can be referred to as Pervasive Developmental Disorders. This content looks like it’s closely at and discusses three of them. Pervasive Developmental Disorder – Not Otherwise Specified, also known as PDD-NOS. Autistic Pdd

This is a condition that is a lot more like classic autism than Asperger’s because the patient actually has symptoms in all three areas of the spectrum – behavioral, social, and communicative. However, they the symptoms are not severe enough for a full autism diagnosis. As a result, you know that it is not autism, but you don’t know what else it is. This is what accounts for the NOS (Not Otherwise Specified) suffix of the name of the disorder. Autistic Pdd

Rett’s Syndrome is a condition like autism as well, but one that affects only girls. Also, in addition to the classic autism symptoms that the sufferer experiences, there are also characteristic jerky hand movements, loss of motor and language skills, and seizures. Eventually, the patient may die as a result of irregular breathing, which suggests that this condition is a bit more severe than classic autistic disorder. Autistic Pdd

Also, there is the Childhood Disintegrative Disorder, or CDD. When you suffer from classic autism, you likely have it from infancy, but when it is CDD, you may have lived a normal life for two to four years before anyone even has a clue. You should know that the prognosis for CDD is worse than for high functioning autism because it also involves, in addition to the basic symptoms, loss of toilet use, self-care, and language. Don’t let your love ones suffer anymore! Lead them out through Autistic Pdd program now!

Feeling lost without solutions? Autistic Pdd is a proven Autism Solution for your Child.

Try The Program and change child’s life forever!
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Asperger Syndrome, Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Prognosis

    Asperger Syndrome is a relatively new diagnosis. It was first discribed by Hans Asperger, an Austrian psychiatrist in 1944 but his work was not written in the English language before the mid 1970’s therefore not recognized in English speaking countries until the late 1980’s. In fact there was no official definition of Aspergers until 1994 when the American Psychiatric Association published their Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition.
Aspergers is most often identified in children between the ages of 5 to 9 years of age, and often times runs in families with histories of depression, bipolar disease and other asperger like behaviors which are commonly found in the father. Children with aspergers often learn to talk at the usual age and many times show above average verbal skills. They are often times above normal in intelligence and can care for themselves but their common social skills are lacking. Many times they have a hard time recognizing others feelings and find it hard to express their feelings to others.
     In many cases asperger patients are fascinated with certain things such as, cleanliness, schedules, and precise writing of letters, in other words they are driven to perfection in one or more aspects of their lives. People with aspergers are often times very creative and excel in mathematics, music, computer sciences and other such fields that require little socialization. They may show a developmental delay in other aspects of their lives such as reading and the ability to socialize with others, especially their peers. Often times people with aspergers are very picky eaters and notice the different textures of foods and how they feel in their mouth.

     As of 2005 no single gene had been found to cause aspergers but genetic studies have identified some genes that may be involved. It is clear that more than one gene is involved in the development of aspergers syndrome. Also a few abnormalities of the brain have been linked to aspergers which are: large folds in the brain tissue located in the left frontal region, abnormally small folds in the operculum and damage to the left temporal lobe. Aspergers is often misdiagnosed as tourette syndrome, attention-deficit disorder (ADD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), or obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD).

     People diagnosed with asperger’s can be taught social guidelines but the social impairment is lifelong with an often times positive outcome in later life. The wonderful news is that patients with asperger’s syndrome have normal and many times above normal intelligence and will be able to finish their education. They seem to flourish in a structured learning situation where they are not bullied and teased by those around them. They are deep thinkers and often times must prove to themselves, what is true. As adults they can be very successful in many jobs especially those with a regular routine, where they work in isolation and colleagues understand their needs.

     In conclusion, it is thought that approximately 2.5 out of every 10,000 people have aspergers it seems to be more common in boys (4:1) and seems to affect all races equally. Interestingly though about 50% of patients with asperger syndrome have had a history of oxygen deprivation during the birth process which has led to the hypothesis that aspergers’ is caused by brain damage before or during childbirth. It has also been suggested there is an organic defect in the brain function. There are drugs that are recommended most often for children with asperger syndrome that can help ease different symptoms the patient may show such as anxiety, depression, and anger. Many times psychotherapy during adolescence helps greatly with depression and other difficult feelings related to social difficulties.


Jill Grant is the grandmother of a remarkable 17 year old grandson with asperger syndrome. She would like to encourage all parents and grandparents of children with this diagnsis to know their children too can be amazing additions to our society. Love, guidence and understanding is all they require to succeed. She has written an article, Asperger Syndrome, Through the Eyes of a Grandmother, available on her web site dedicated to and providing products to home health caregivers and their loved ones. Please visit her at http://www.diaperingneeds.com/articles/We Care About You L.L.C.  Jill Grant; Managing Member  Jill@diaperingneeds.com 
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