Tag Archives: Personality Disorders

Question?: Asperger Syndrome Symptoms

David asks…

is it possible borderline personality could exhibit similar symptoms to aspergers syndrome ?

or is aspergers syndrome a different disorder all together ?

would you be able to easily tell if you had aspergers ?

admin answers:

The symptoms for Asperger syndrome and any other autistic spectrum disorder are similar to borderline personality disorders but a professional clinical psychologist would be easily able to tell the difference. Asperger syndrome is a pervasive development disorder so you are born with it and will have it for the rest of your life. It is classified by the triad of impairments, difficulties with social interaction, imagination and communication. You would need a specialist or a psychologist to diagnose you with having Asperger syndrome.

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Question?: What Is Autism Disorder

Mandy asks…

Are some mental illnesses and disorders expressions of evolution at work?

Considering the pathetic state of human civilization, isn’t it safe to say that humans are not currently able to control — or, at least, focalize — their emotions in a practical manner enough to allow for survival? If so, wouldn’t it be painfully logical to accept and value much more those of us who are morally stable but labelled as intense, apathetic, peculiar, odd or asocial? I’m particularly interested in cluster A and B personality disorders along with autism spectrum disorders, seeing as none of them are psychotic or harmful and that they generally don’t perceive their disorders as problematic — only other people do, which is what actually leads to these individuals’ distress in the first place.

Could it be that these conditions are actually further evolutionary steps towards solidifying and maximizing the (conscious and evolutionary recent) frontal cortices’ grip over the impulses of the (unconscious and evolutionary outdated) limbic system?

If so, would it not be important to try shifting society around for the benefit of those who predispose us towards evolutionary progress — to start valuing self-control, intelligence, creativity and independence over mindless conformity?

Philosophically speaking, would it be best, as a society, to cull the weak in order to preserve natural selection or, rather, to begin consciously engineering survival according to our needs?

My own opinion clearly transpires through these questions but I’ll be reading your responses (if any) with as open a mind as possible and let the community decide whichever deserves to be selected as the best answer. Please do share any of your thoughts and reactions as there is no specific question.

Once again, thank you all for your time and inputs.

admin answers:

I’m sure you have an idea of how psychotic we have become. Imagination has spawn us into a labyrinth of false beliefs and this awkward pursuit of happiness. I’m not sure what you mean by focalization of emotions.. Greed and dominance is the evolutionary process and the main direction for our outcome.. Or failure.. Whatever. Big bucks in the woods always want more does; same difference “humans”. If you go back to square one and wipe out all the BS that we’ve developed through this “mental evolution” of civilization as of now.. Getting rid of all the weight. Our primary goal is to survive, hunt, and survive more. Somewhere along the line, someone with an ability to recognize or with “special” features, finally understood and had the ability to teach a simple task and understood the ability for another to learn. These spikes in the evolutionary chain of greatness towards a particular affected region of the brain often open a gateway towards understanding the present.. Much better than those of us who often times forget what the present actually is. Reversing all knowledge and clutter, these spikes are not permanent but over-developments of the so system you mention. Exposure to the special under the correct understanding could open an ability to recognize a greater ability in one’s self.. We just can’t understand it yet and only exposure to those “special” people, hold the key.

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Question?: Asperger Syndrome Treatment

William asks…

What do you think is the most beneficial disorder and the worse one ?

My opinion

Most beneficial: Asperger syndrome, bipolar and personality disorder.

worst: shizophrenia, depression, ADHD and learning dis-abillity.

admin answers:

Most beneficial: GAD or some other axis I disorder that is easiest to treat

Worst: personality disorders, schizophrenia, recurrent major depressive disorder (especially that is not respondent to treatment), bipolar disorder, OCD, chronic anxiety

I think mental disorders such as bipolar are “over glamorized” by the media. The truth is is that the disorder generally makes life a bear for these people.

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Question?: What Is Autism Disorder

Helen asks…

Are some mental illnesses and disorders expressions of evolution at work?

Considering the pathetic state of human civilization, isn’t it safe to say that humans are not currently able to control — or, at least, focalize — their emotions in a practical manner enough to allow for survival? If so, wouldn’t it be painfully logical to accept and value much more those of us who are morally stable but labelled as intense, apathetic, peculiar, odd or asocial? I’m particularly interested in cluster A and B personality disorders along with autism spectrum disorders, seeing as none of them are psychotic or harmful and that they generally don’t perceive their disorders as problematic — only other people do, which is what actually leads to these individuals’ distress in the first place.

Could it be that these conditions are actually further evolutionary steps towards solidifying and maximizing the (conscious and evolutionary recent) frontal cortices’ grip over the impulses of the (unconscious and evolutionary outdated) limbic system?

If so, would it not be important to try shifting society around for the benefit of those who predispose us towards evolutionary progress — to start valuing self-control, intelligence, creativity and independence over mindless conformity?

Philosophically speaking, would it be best, as a society, to cull the weak in order to preserve natural selection or, rather, to begin consciously engineering survival according to our needs?

My own opinion clearly transpires through these questions but I’ll be reading your responses (if any) with as open a mind as possible and let the community decide whichever deserves to be selected as the best answer. Please do share any of your thoughts and reactions as there is no specific question.

Once again, thank you all for your time and inputs.
Our civilization is pathetic in the sense that it is destroying the ecosystem, still wages pointless wars, generates unnecessary suffering, populates far beyond the availability of resources and, of course, could very likely end up annihilating itself through nuclear warfare. Although we certainly do have the innate potential to change the status quo and live righteously, we are still currently faring much worse than every single species on Earth.

admin answers:

Well human civilization isn’t really that bad. The point is we are alive and in billions. Whatever we are doing it is working. Evolution doesn’t favor creativity, emotional stability, intelligence, or anything particularly good or bad, evolution only happens for things that are useful, and the easiest to obtain. It’s much easier and *immediately productive to be stronger and faster than it is to be smart.–It may simply be a fact for humans, for example, that minorities, such as blacks, have high crime rates because their minds, which aren’t nearly at the average intelligence and creativity of everybody else, simply see the host civilization, attach themselves to it, and steal/pillage and rape whatever they can get, because it works!! When they are on their own they are starving to death and riddled with disease.—-I personally think humanity should overstep the boundaries of evolution and cultivate our minds for their maximum intelligence.

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Question?: Asperger Syndrome Treatment

Richard asks…

What is the difference between a “normal” over-active child and a child with ADHD?

Part of being a child is pushing boundaries, being full of energy, not doing what your told, and having tantrums because they haven’t learned to emotionally hide/control/repress their feelings. What is the difference between this and a child being diagnosed with ADHD? Like the spurious Aspergers Syndrome, M.E. and “personality disorders” is ADHD just another ficticious label to apply to children who don’t do what they’re told to help parents excuse their responsibility and behaviour?

admin answers:

Normal kids can control their behavior, kids with ADHD can’t and no matter how hard they try, they struggle. Normal kids are able to calm down and focus in class and get their work done while a kid with ADHD fails to get their work done so they come home with tons of homework. They also often misplace their work or items and they struggle trying to be organized. But with pills, they find it easier to focus and be more organized. There have been a few people who managed to get better at it without the medicine but that was maybe because they were borderline ADHD or mild.

ADHD is not another made up thing (nor are the other conditions you mentioned) but if you look at it another way, it is made up and so are all the other conditions. Everything needs a name so people know what to do to fix their problems or know what treatment to get, etc. Just imagine what life be like if conditions didn’t have a name. People wouldn’t know what to do about their problems and doctors wouldn’t know what pills to prescribe. People wouldn’t even know what to look up to see what they can do to help their child or themselves.
Labels don’t define anyone. You are you and people are people, not the label. The problems do exist but some are over the top like shy eating or pregnorexia. They’re real but I think the names are ridiculous. Pregnorexia is just anorexia except the woman is pregnant. Shy eating just sounds like social anxiety but they picked braches from the tree and made it a condition of its own. But Stockholm syndrome and Lima syndrome? Ridiculous even though the behavior exists but to make it a condition? Come on. I even think adjustment disorder is ridiculous even though the problems do exist and I had that condition too.

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Question?: What Is Autism Disorder

William asks…

Are some mental illnesses and disorders expressions of evolution at work?

Considering the pathetic state of human civilization, isn’t it safe to say that humans are not currently able to control — or, at least, focalize — their emotions in a practical manner enough to allow for survival? If so, wouldn’t it be painfully logical to accept and value much more those of us who are morally stable but labelled as intense, apathetic, peculiar, odd or asocial? I’m particularly interested in cluster A and B personality disorders along with autism spectrum disorders, seeing as none of them are psychotic or harmful and that they generally don’t perceive their disorders as problematic — only other people do, which is what actually leads to these individuals’ distress in the first place.

Could it be that these conditions are actually further evolutionary steps towards solidifying and maximizing the (conscious and evolutionary recent) frontal cortices’ grip over the impulses of the (unconscious and evolutionary outdated) limbic system?

If so, would it not be important to try shifting society around for the benefit of those who predispose us towards evolutionary progress — to start valuing self-control, intelligence, creativity and independence over mindless conformity?

Philosophically speaking, would it be best, as a society, to cull the weak in order to preserve natural selection or, rather, to begin consciously engineering survival according to our needs?

My own opinion clearly transpires through these questions but I’ll be reading your responses (if any) with as open a mind as possible and let the community decide whichever deserves to be selected as the best answer. Please do share any of your thoughts and reactions as there is no specific question.

Once again, thank you all for your time and inputs.

admin answers:

A very interesting take. In fact i myself have always wondered and somewhat believe that this may be true but have not yet delved into the subject very deeply. I do however beleive in “indigo children” mental capabilities beyond that of what is accepted to be real and considered by the vast majority to be ‘super-natural powers’. I dont believe that they are super powers but simply the evelution of the humans mind as well. Things like astral projection, telepathy, clairvoyance, recognizing auras, and psychometry seem to the majority of the population to be science fiction when in fact there has been proof (unofficially scientifically of course) that individuals with these enhanced abilities are also lacking in other seemingly normal abilities or have some type of physical ailment the same as when a person loses on of their 5 senses, the other 4 senses are enhanced by just a bit more. A blind man has better hearing than the average human being. Maybe a person with a chronic illness or mental disability has enhanced senses mentally but cannot express them or even cares to express them. Unfortunatley the name now evades me but there is a widely known studier of hypnotism who discovered that people of the same mental states seem to speak in their own patterns that differenciate from other people of another mental state. He copied the pattern that psycopaths speak in and used this as a way to enter the subconscience of any individual. Since we all have the capability speaking and thinking in hese different patters, our minds just choose which one is most comfortable, he could use this pattern of thought on an individual who did not use this pattern to hypnotize them. I believe that the same is true for any person whatever the mental state and that possible evelution is using a somewhat trial and error to see which combination and balance of skills and mental patterns is best useful for survival in constantly changing conditions like that of the planet we live on. I havent thought much more than this myself but maybe you can research these different topics yourself and decide wether or not they are connected to your theory

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Question?: Autism Signs And Symptoms

Paul asks…

What’s the difference between psychological signs and symptoms?

In psychiatry textbooks the authors use “signsandsymptoms‘ without explaining what’s the difference between them. Can someone help me understand? I am really into psychology now.

admin answers:

The first encounter between psychiatrist or therapist and patient (or client) is multi-phased. The mental health practitioner notes the patient’s history and administers or prescribes a physical examination to rule out certain medical conditions. Armed with the results, the diagnostician now observes the patient carefully and compiles lists of signs and symptoms, grouped into syndromes.

Symptoms are the patient’s complaints. They are highly subjective and amenable to suggestion and to alterations in the patient’s mood and other mental processes. Symptoms are no more than mere indications. Signs, on the other hand, are objective and measurable. Signs are evidence of the existence, stage, and extent of a pathological state. Headache is a symptom – short-sightedness (which may well be the cause of the headache) is a sign.

Here is a partial list of the most important signs and symptoms in alphabetical order:

Affect

We all experience emotions, but each and every one of us expresses them differently. Affect is HOW we express our innermost feelings and how other people observe and interpret our expressions. Affect is characterized by the type of emotion involved (sadness, happiness, anger, etc.) and by the intensity of its expression. Some people have flat affect: they maintain “poker faces”, monotonous, immobile, apparently unmoved. This is typical of the Schizoid Personality Disorder Others have blunted, constricted, or broad (healthy) affect. Patients with the dramatic (Cluster B) personality disorders – especially the Histrionic and the Borderline – have exaggerate and labile (changeable) affect. They are “drama queens”.

In certain mental health disorders, the affect is inappropriate. For instance: such people laugh when they recount a sad or horrifying event or when they find themselves is morbid settings (e.g., in a funeral). Also see: Mood.

Read about inappropriate affect in narcissists

Ambivalence

We have all come across situations and dilemmas which evoked equipotent – but opposing and conflicting – emotions or ideas. Now, imagine someone with a permanent state of inner turmoil: her emotions come in mutually exclusive pairs, her thoughts and conclusions arrayed in contradictory dyads. The result is, of course, extreme indecision, to the point of utter paralysis and inaction. Sufferers of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorders and the Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder are highly ambivalent.

Anhedonia

When we lose the urge to seek pleasure and to prefer it to nothingness or even pain, we become anhedonic. Depression inevitably involves anhedonia. The depressed are unable to conjure sufficient mental energy to get off the couch and do something because they find everything equally boring and unattractive.

Anorexia

Diminished appetite to the point of refraining from eating. Whether it is part of a depressive illness or a body dysmorphic disorder (erroneous perception of one’s body as too fat) is still debated. Anorexia is one of a family of eating disorders which also includes bulimia (compulsive gorging on food and then its forced purging, usually by vomiting).

Learn more about comorbidity of eating disorders and personality disorders

Anxiety

A kind of unpleasant (dysphoric), mild fear, with no apparent external reason. Anxiety is akin to dread, or apprehension, or fearful anticipation of some imminent but diffuse and unspecified danger. The mental state of anxiety (and the concomitant hypervigilance) has physiological complements: tensed muscle tone, elevated blood pressure, tachycardia, and sweating (arousal).

Generalized Anxiety Disorder is sometimes misdiagnosed as a personality disorder

Autism

More precisely: autistic thinking and inter-relating (relating to other people). Fantasy-infused thoughts. The patient’s cognitions derive from an overarching and all-pervasive fantasy life. Moreover, the patient infuses people and events around him or her with fantastic and completely subjective meanings. The patient regards the external world as an extension or projection of the internal one. He, thus, often withdraws completely and retreats into his inner, private realm, unavailable to communicate and interact with others.

Asperger’s Disorder, one of the spectrum of autistic disorders, is sometimes misdiagnosed as Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD)

Automatic obeisance or obedience

Automatic, unquestioning, and immediate obeisance of all commands, even the most manifestly absurd and dangerous ones. This suspension of critical judgment is sometimes an indication of incipient catatonia.

Blocking

Halted, frequently interrupted speech to the point of incoherence indicates a parallel disruption of thought processes. The patient appears to try hard to remember what it was that he or she were saying or thinking (as if they “lost the thread” of conversation).

Catalepsy

“Human sculptures” are patients who freeze in any posture and position that they are placed, no matter how painful and unusual. Typical of catatonics.

Catatonia

A syndrome comprised of various signs, amongst which are: catalepsy, mutism, stereotypy, negativism, stupor, automatic obedience, echolalia, and echopraxia. Until recently it was thought to be related to schizophrenia, but this view has been discredited when the biochemical basis for schizophrenia had been discovered. The current thinking is that catatonia is an exaggerated form of mania (in other words: an affective disorder). It is a feature of catatonic schizophrenia, though, and also appears in certain psychotic states and mental disorders that have organic (medical) roots.

Cerea Flexibilitas

Literally: wax-like flexibility. In the common form of catalepsy, the patient offers no resistance to the re-arrangement of his limbs or to the re-alignment of her posture. In Cerea Flexibilitas, there is some resistance, though it is very mild, much like the resistance a sculpture made of soft wax would offer.

Circumstantiality

When the train of thought and speech is often derailed by unrelated digressions, based on chaotic associations. The patient finally succeeds to express his or her main idea but only after much effort and wandering. In extreme cases considered to be a communication disorder.

Clang Associations

Rhyming or punning associations of words with no logical connection or any discernible relationship between them. Typical of manic episodes, psychotic states, and schizophrenia.

Clouding

(Also: Clouding of Consciousness)

The patient is wide awake but his or her awareness of the environment is partial, distorted, or impaired. Clouding also occurs when one gradually loses consciousness (for instance, as a result of intense pain or lack of oxygen).

Compulsion

Involuntary repetition of a stereotyped and ritualistic action or movement, usually in connection with a wish or a fear. The patient is aware of the irrationality of the compulsive act (in other words: she knows that there is no real connection between her fears and wishes and what she is repeatedly compelled to do). Most compulsive patients find their compulsions tedious, bothersome, distressing, and unpleasant – but resisting the urge results in mounting anxiety from which only the compulsive act provides much needed relief. Compulsions are common in obsessive-compulsive disorders, the Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder (OCPD), and in certain types of schizophrenia.

Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder (OCPD)

Read about the compulsive acts of the narcissist

Concrete Thinking

Inability or diminished capacity to form abstractions or to think using abstract categories. The patient is unable to consider and formulate hypotheses or to grasp and apply metaphors. Only one layer of meaning is attributed to each word or phrase and figures of speech are taken literally. Consequently, nuances are not detected or appreciated. A common feature of schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorders, and certain organic disorders.

Read about narcissism and Asperger’s Disorder
Confabulation

The constant and unnecessary fabrication of information or events to fill in gaps in the patient’s memory, biography or knowledge, or to substitute for unacceptable reality. Common in the Cluster B personality disorders (narcissistic, histrionic, borderline, and antisocial) and in organic memory impairment or the amnestic syndrome (amnesia).

Read about the Narcissist’s Confabulated Life

Confusion

Complete (though often momentary) loss of orientation in relation to one’s location, time, and to other people. Usually the result of impaired memory (often occurs in dementia) or attention deficit (for instance, in delirium). Also see: Disorientation.

Delirium

Delirium is a syndrome which involves clouding, confusion, restlessness, psychomotor disorders (retardation or, on the opposite pole, agitation), and mood and affective disturbances (lability). Delirium is not a constant state. It waxes and wanes and its onset is sudden, usually the result of some organic affliction of the brain.

Delusion

A belief, idea, or conviction firmly held despite abundant information to the contrary. The partial or complete loss of reality test is the first indication of a psychotic state or episode. Beliefs, ideas, or convictions shared by other people, members of the same collective, are not, strictly speaking, delusions, although they may be hallmarks of shared psychosis. There are many types of delusions:

I. Paranoid

The belief that one is being controlled or persecuted by stealth powers and conspiracies.

2. Grandiose-magical

The conviction that one is important, omnipotent, possessed of occult powers, or a historic figure.

3. Referential (ideas of reference)

The belief that external, objective events carry hidden or coded messages or that one is the subject of discussion, derision, or opprobrium, even by total strangers.

The Delusional Way Out

Psychosis and Delusions

Ideas of Reference

Dementia

Simultaneous impairment of various mental faculties, especially the intellect, memory, judgment, abstract thinking, and impulse control due to brain damage, usually as an outcome of organic illness. Dementia ultimately leads to the transformation of the patient’s whole personality. Dementia does not involve clouding and can have acute or slow (insidious) onset. Some dementia states are reversible.

Depersonalization

Feeling that one’s body has changed shape or that specific organs have become elastic and are not under one’s control. Usually coupled with “out of body” experiences. Common in a variety of mental health and physiological disorders: depression, anxiety, epilepsy, schizophrenia, and hypnagogic states. Often observed in adolescents. See: Derealization.

Derailment
A loosening of associations. A pattern of speech in which unrelated or loosely-related ideas are expressed hurriedly and forcefully, with frequent topical shifts and with no apparent internal logic or reason. See: Incoherence.

Derealization

Feeling that one’s immediate environment is unreal, dream-like, or somehow altered. See: Depersonalization.

Warped Reality

Dereistic Thinking

Inability to incorporate reality-based facts and logical inference into one’s thinking. Fantasy-based thoughts.

Disorientation

Not knowing what year, month, or day it is or not knowing one’s location (country, state, city, street, or building one is in). Also: not knowing who one is, one’s identity. One of the signs of delirium.

Echolalia

Imitation by way of exactly repeating another person’s speech. Involuntary, semiautomatic, uncontrollable, and repeated imitation of the speech of others. Observed in organic mental disorders, pervasive developmental disorders, psychosis, and catatonia. See: Echopraxia.

Echopraxia

Imitation by way or exactly repeating another person’s movements. Involuntary, semiautomatic, uncontrollable, and repeated imitation of the movements of others. Observed in organic mental disorders, pervasive developmental disorders, psychosis, and catatonia. See: Echolalia.

Flight of Ideas

Rapidly verbalized train of unrelated thoughts or of thoughts related only via relatively-coherent associations. Still, in its extreme forms, flight of ideas involves cognitive incoherence and disorganization. Appears as a sign of mania, certain organic mental health disorders, schizophrenia, and psychotic states. Also see: Pressure of Speech and Loosening of Associations.

More about the manic phase of the Bipolar disorder

Folie a Deux (Madness in Twosome, Shared Psychosis)

The sharing of delusional (often persecutory) ideas and beliefs by two or more (folie a plusieurs) persons who cohabitate or form a social unit (e.g., a family, a cult, or an organization). One of the members in each of these groups is dominant and is the source of the delusional content and the instigator of the idiosyncratic behaviors that accompany the delusions.

Read more about Shared Psychosis and cults – click on these links:

http://samvak.tripod.com/journal79.html

http://samvak.tripod.com/abusefamily.html

http://malignantselflove.tripod.com/faq6.html

http://malignantselflove.tripod.com/faq66.html

Fugue

Vanishing act. A sudden flight or wandering away and disappearance from home or work, followed by the assumption of a new identity and the commencement of a new life in a new place. The previous life is completely erased from memory (amnesia). When the fugue is over, it is also forgotten as is the new life adopted by the patient.

Hallucination

False perceptions based on false sensa (sensory input) not triggered by any external event or entity. The patient is usually not psychotic – he is aware that he what he sees, smells, feels, or hears is not there. Still, some psychotic states are accompanied by hallucinations (e.g., formication – the feeling that bugs are crawling over or under one’s skin).

There are a few classes of hallucinations:

Auditory – The false perception of voices and sounds (such as buzzing, humming, radio transmissions, whispering, motor noises, and so on).

Gustatory – The false perception of tastes

Olfactory – The false perception of smells and scents (e.g., burning flesh, candles)

Somatic – The false perception of processes and events that are happening inside the body or to the body (e.g., piercing objects, electricity running through one’s extremities). Usually supported by an appropriate and relevant delusional content.

Tactile – The false sensation of being touched, or crawled upon or that events and processes are taking place under one’s skin. Usually supported by an appropriate and relevant delusional content.

Visual – The false perception of objects, people, or events in broad daylight or in an illuminated environment with eyes wide open.

Hypnagogic and Hypnopompic – Images and trains of events experienced while falling asleep or when waking up. Not hallucinations in the strict sense of the word.

Hallucinations are common in schizophrenia, affective disorders, and mental health disorders with organic origins. Hallucinations are also common in drug and alcohol withdrawal and among substance abusers.

Ideas of Reference

Weak delusions of reference, devoid of inner conviction and with a stronger reality test. See: Delusion.

The Delusional Way Out

Psychosis and Delusions

Ideas of Reference

Illusion

The misperception or misinterpretation of real external – visual or auditory – stimuli, attributing them to non-existent events and actions. Incorrect perception of a material object. See: Hallucination.

Incoherence

Incomprehensible speech, rife with severely loose associations, distorted grammar, tortured syntax, and idiosyncratic definitions of the words used by the patient (“private language”). A loosening of associations. A pattern of speech in which unrelated or loosely-related ideas are expressed hurriedly and forcefully, using broken, ungrammatical, non-syntactical sentences, an idiosyncratic vocabulary (“private language”), topical shifts, and inane juxtapositions (“word salad”). See: Loosening of Associations; Flight of Ideas; Tangentiality.

Insomnia

Sleep disorder or disturbance involving difficulties to either fall asleep (“initial insomnia”) or to remain asleep (“middle insomnia”). Waking up early and being unable to resume sleep is also a form of insomnia (“terminal insomnia”).

Loosening of Associations

Thought and speech disorder which involves the translocation of the focus of attention from one subject to another for no apparent reason. The patient is usually unaware of the fact that his train of thoughts and his speech are incongruous and incoherent. A sign of schizophrenia and some psychotic states. See: Incoherence; Flight of Ideas; Tangentiality.

Mood

Pervasive and sustained feelings and emotions as subjectively described by the patient. The same phenomena observed by the clinician are called affect. Mood can be either dysphoric (unpleasant) or euphoric (elevated, expansive, “good mood”). Dysphoric moods are characterized by a reduced sense of well-being, depleted energy, and negative self-regard or sense of self-worth. Euphoric moods typically involve an increased sense of well-being, ample energy, and a stable sense of self-worth and self-esteem. Also see: Affect.

Mood Congruence and Incongruence

The contents of mood-congruent hallucinations and delusions are consistent and compatible with the patient’s mood. During the manic phase of the Bipolar Disorder, for instance, such hallucinations and delusions involve grandiosity, omnipotence, personal identification with great personalities in history or with deities, and magical thinking. In depression, mood-congruent hallucinations and delusions revolve around themes like the patient’s self-misperceived faults, shortcomings, failures, worthlessness, guilt – or the patient’s impending doom, death, and “well-deserved” sadistic punishment.

The contents of mood-incongruent hallucinations and delusions are inconsistent and incompatible with the patient’s mood. Most persecutory delusions and delusions and ideas of reference, as well as phenomena such as control “freakery” and Schneiderian First-rank Symptoms are mood-incongruent. Mood incongruence is especially prevalent in schizophrenia, psychosis, mania, and depression.

Misdiagnosing the Bipolar Disorder as Narcissistic Personality Disorder

Depression and Cluster B Personality Disorders – click on these links:

http://www.narcissistic-abuse.com/faq17.html

http://www.narcissistic-abuse.com/journal83.html

Mutism

Abstention from speech or refusal to speak. Common in catatonia.

Negativism

In catatonia, complete opposition and resistance to suggestion.

Neologism

In schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders, the invention of new “words” which are meaningful to the patient but meaningless to everyone else. To form the neologisms, the patient fuses together and combines syllables or other elements from existing words.

Obsession

Recurring and intrusive images, thoughts, ideas, or wishes that dominate and exclude other cognitions. The patient often finds the contents of his obsessions unacceptable or even repulsive and actively resists them, but to no avail. Common in schizophrenia and obsessive-compulsive disorder.

Obsessions in the Narcissistic Personality Disorder

Panic Attack

A form of severe anxiety attack accompanied by a sense of losing control and of an impending and imminent life-threatening danger (where there is none). Physiological markers of panic attacks include palpitation, sweating, tachycardia (rapid heart beats), dyspnea or apnoea (chest tightening and difficulties breathing), hyperventilation, light-headedness or dizziness, nausea, and peripheral paresthesias (an abnormal sensation of burning, prickling, tingling, or tickling). In normal people it is a reaction to sustained and extreme stress. Common in many mental health disorders.

Sudden, overpowering feelings of imminent threat and apprehension, bordering on fear and terror. There usually is no external cause for alarm (the attacks are uncued or unexpected, with no situational trigger) – though some panic attacks are situationally-bound (reactive) and follow exposure to “cues” (potentially or actually dangerous events or circumstances). Most patients display a mixture of both types of attacks (they are situationally predisposed).

Bodily manifestations include shortness of breath, sweating, pounding heart and increased pulse as well as palpitations, chest pain, overall discomfort, and choking. Sufferers often describe their experience as being smothered or suffocated. They are afraid that they may be going crazy or about to lose control.

Misdiagnosing General Anxiety Disorder (GAD) as Narcissistic Personality Disorder

Paranoia

Psychotic grandiose and persecutory delusions. Paranoids are characterized by a paranoid style: they are rigid, sullen, suspicious, hypervigilant, hypersensitive, envious, guarded, resentful, humorless, and litigious. Paranoids often suffer from paranoid ideation – they believe (though not firmly) that they are being stalked or followed, plotted against, or maliciously slandered. They constantly gather information to prove their “case” that they are the objects of conspiracies against them. Paranoia is not the same as Paranoid Schizophrenia, which is a subtype of schizophrenia.

Paranoid Personality Disorder

Perseveration

Repeating the same gesture, behavior, concept, idea, phrase, or word in speech. Common in schizophrenia, organic mental disorders, and psychotic disorders.

Phobia

Dread of a particular object or situation, acknowledged by the patient to be irrational or excessive. Leads to all-pervasive avoidance behavior (attempts to avoid the feared object or situation). A persistent, unfounded, and irrational fear or dread of one or more classes of objects, activities, situations, or locations (the phobic stimuli) and the resulting overwhelming and compulsive desire to avoid them. See: Anxiety.

Posturing

Assuming and remaining in abnormal and contorted bodily positions for prolonged periods of time. Typical of catatonic states.

Poverty of Content (of Speech)

Persistently vague, overly abstract or concrete, repetitive, or stereotyped speech.

Poverty of Speech

Reactive, non-spontaneous, extremely brief, intermittent, and halting speech. Such patients often remain silent for days on end unless and until spoken to.

Pressure of Speech

Rapid, condensed, unstoppable and “driven” speech. The patient dominates the conversation, speaks loudly and emphatically, ignores attempted interruptions, and doesn’t care if anyone is listening or responding to him or her. Seen in manic states, psychotic or organic mental disorders, and conditions associated with stress. See: Flight of Ideas.

Psychomotor Agitation

Mounting internal tension associated with excessive, non-productive (not goal orientated), and repeated motor activity (hand wringing, fidgeting, and similar gestures). Hyperactivity and motor restlessness which co-occur with anxiety and irritability.
Psychomotor Retardation

Visible slowing of speech or movements or both. Usually affects the entire range of performance (entire repertory). Typically involves poverty of speech, delayed response time (subjects answer questions after an inordinately long silence), monotonous and flat voice tone, and constant feelings of overwhelming fatigue.

Psychosis

Chaotic thinking that is the result of a severely impaired reality test ( the patient cannot tell inner fantasy from outside reality). Some psychotic states are short-lived and transient (microepisodes). These last from a few hours to a few days and are sometimes reactions to stress. Persistent psychoses are a fixture of the patient’s mental life and manifest for months or years.

Psychotics are fully aware of events and people “out there”. They cannot, however separate data and experiences originating in the outside world from information generated by internal mental processes. They confuse the external universe with their inner emotions, cognitions, preconceptions, fears, expectations, and representations.

Consequently, psychotics have a distorted view of reality and are not rational. No amount of objective evidence can cause them to doubt or reject their hypotheses and convictions. Full-fledged psychosis involves complex and ever more bizarre delusions and the unwillingness to confront and consider contrary data and information (preoccupation with the subjective rather than the objective). Thought becomes utterly disorganized and fantastic.

There is a thin line separating nonpsychotic from psychotic perception and ideation. On this spectrum we also find the schizotypal personality disorder.

Narcissism, Psychosis, and Delusions

Reality Sense

The way one thinks about, perceives, and feels reality.

Reality Testing

Comparing one’s reality sense and one’s hypotheses about the way things are and how things operate to objective, external cues from the environment.

Schneiderian First-rank Symptoms

A list of symptoms compiled by Kurt Schneider, a German psychiatrist, in 1957 and indicative of the presence of schizophrenia. Includes:

Auditory hallucinations

Hearing conversations between a few imaginary “interlocutors”, or one’s thoughts spoken out loud, or a running background commentary on one’s actions and thoughts.

Somatic hallucinations

Experiencing imagined sexual acts couple with delusions attributed to forces, “energy”, or hypnotic suggestion.

Thought withdrawal

The delusion that one’s thoughts are taken over and controlled by others and then “drained” from one’s brain.

Thought insertion

The delusion that thoughts are being implanted or inserted into one’s mind involuntarily.

Thought broadcasting

The delusion that everyone can read one’s mind, as though one’s thoughts were being broadcast.

Delusional perception

Attaching unusual meanings and significance to genuine perceptions, usually with some kind of (paranoid or narcissistic) self-reference.

Delusion of control

The delusion that one’s acts, thoughts, feelings, perceptions, and impulses are directed or influenced by other people.

Stereotyping or Stereotyped movement (or motion)

Repetitive, urgent, compulsive, purposeless, and non-functional movements, such as head banging, waving, rocking, biting, or picking at one’s nose or skin. Common in catatonia, amphetamine poisoning, and schizophrenia.

Stupor

Restricted and constricted consciousness akin in some respects to coma. Activity, both mental and physical, is limited. Some patients in stupor are unresponsive and seem to be unaware of the environment. Others sit motionless and frozen but are clearly cognizant of their surroundings. Often the result of an organic impairment. Common in catatonia, schizophrenia, and extreme depressive states.

Tangentiality

Inability or unwillingness to focus on an idea, issue, question, or theme of conversation. The patient “takes off on a tangent” and hops from one topic to another in accordance with his own coherent inner agenda, frequently changing subjects, and ignoring any attempts to restore “discipline” to the communication. Often co-occurs with speech derailment. As distinct from loosening of associations, tangential thinking and speech are coherent and logical but they seek to evade the issue, problem, question, or theme raised by the other interlocutor.

Thought Broadcasting, Though Insertion, Thought Withdrawal

See: Schneiderian First-rank Symptoms

Thought Disorder

A consistent disturbance that affects the process or content of thinking, the use of language, and, consequently, the ability to communicate effectively. An all-pervasive failure to observe semantic, logical, or even syntactical rules and forms. A fundamental feature of schizophrenia.

Vegetative Signs

A set of signs in depression which includes loss of appetite, sleep disorder, loss of sexual drive, loss of weight, and constipation. May also indicate an eating disorder.

Read more about eating disorders – click on these links:

http://personalitydisorders.suite101.com/article.cfm/eating_disorders_and_personality

http://www.narcissistic-abuse.com/faq65.html

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Question?: Schizophrenia Definition

Steven asks…

What Mental Illnesses (other than Schizophrenia) would fall under the definition of Psychosis?

In other words, what diseases involve the patients becoming psychotic?

admin answers:

Psychosis can be caused by many things…. Schizophrenia, Schizoaffective Disorder, Bipolar Disorder, brain tumor, Personality Disorders (schizotypal, Schizoid and Borderline mostly), Delusional Disorder, and OCD. Many drugs both legal and illegal can cause psychosis (prednisone is a legal medication that can cause psychosis).

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