Tag Archives: Neurological Disorders

Question?: Pdd Symptoms

Helen asks…

Is It Possible to Both Have Aspergers and Borderline Autism?

I am wondering, because I seem to have symptoms of both.

admin answers:

Asperger’s is a form of autism (sometimes referred to as high functioning autism). Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is one of five disorders that falls under the umbrella of Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDD), a category of neurological disorders characterized by “severe and pervasive impairment in several areas of development.” The other 4 disorders are Asperger’s Disorder, Childhood Disintegrative Disorder (CDD), Rett’s Disorder, and PDD-Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS – aka a-typical autism).

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Question?: Pdd Symptoms

Paul asks…

Can someone please explain to me in detail what Autism is?

And what the symptoms are? That would be awesome!

admin answers:

Autism is a complex developmental disability that typically appears during the first three years of life and is the result of a neurological disorder that affects the normal functioning of the brain, impacting development in the areas of social interaction and communication skills. Both children and adults with autism typically show difficulties in verbal and non-verbal communication, social interactions, and leisure or play activities. One should keep in mind however, that autism is a spectrum disorder and it affects each individual differently and at varying degrees – this is why early diagnosis is so crucial. By learning the signs, a child can begin benefiting from one of the many specialized intervention programs.

Autism is one of five disorders that falls under the umbrella of Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDD), a category of neurological disorders characterized by “severe and pervasive impairment in several areas of development.”

Autism is a spectrum disorder, and although it is defined by a certain set of behaviors, children and adults with autism can exhibit any combination of these behaviors in any degree of severity. Two children, both with the same diagnosis, can act completely different from one another and have varying capabilities.

You may hear different terms used to describe children within this spectrum, such as autistic-like, autistic tendencies, autism spectrum, high-functioning or low-functioning autism, more-abled or less-abled; but more important than the term used to describe autism is understanding that whatever the diagnosis, children with autism can learn and function normally and show improvement with appropriate treatment and education.

Every person with autism is an individual, and like all individuals, has a unique personality and combination of characteristics. Some individuals mildly affected may exhibit only slight delays in language and greater challenges with social interactions. They may have difficulty initiating and/or maintaining a conversation. Their communication is often described as talking at others instead of to them. (For example, monologue on a favorite subject that continues despite attempts by others to interject comments).

People with autism also process and respond to information in unique ways. In some cases, aggressive and/or self-injurious behavior may be present. Persons with autism may also exhibit some of the following traits:

~Insistence on sameness; resistance to change
~Difficulty in expressing needs, using gestures or pointing instead of words
~Repeating words or phrases in place of normal, responsive language
~Laughing (and/or crying) for no apparent reason showing distress for reasons not apparent to others
~Preference to being alone; aloof manner
~Tantrums
~Difficulty in mixing with others
~Not wanting to cuddle or be cuddled
~Little or no eye contact
~Unresponsive to normal teaching methods
~Sustained odd play
~Spinning objects
~Obsessive attachment to objects
~Apparent over-sensitivity or under-sensitivity to pain
~No real fears of danger
~Noticeable physical over-activity or extreme under-activity
~Uneven gross/fine motor skills
~Non responsive to verbal cues; acts as if deaf, although hearing tests in normal range.

For most of us, the integration of our senses helps us to understand what we are experiencing. For example, our sense of touch, smell and taste work together in the experience of eating a ripe peach: the feel of the peach’s skin, its sweet smell, and the juices running down your face. For children with autism, sensory integration problems are common, which may throw their senses off they may be over or under active. The fuzz on the peach may actually be experienced as painful and the smell may make the child gag. Some children with autism are particularly sensitive to sound, finding even the most ordinary daily noises painful. Many professionals feel that some of the typical autism behaviors, like the ones listed above, are actually a result of sensory integration difficulties.

There are also many myths and misconceptions about autism. Contrary to popular belief, many autistic children do make eye contact; it just may be less often or different from a non-autistic child. Many children with autism can develop good functional language and others can develop some type of communication skills, such as sign language or use of pictures. Children do not “outgrow” autism but symptoms may lessen as the child develops and receives treatment.

One of the most devastating myths about autistic children is that they cannot show affection. While sensory stimulation is processed differently in some children, they can and do give affection. However, it may require patience on the parents’ part to accept and give love in the child’s terms.

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Question?: Rett Syndrome Causes

Jenny asks…

Is sensory processing disorder on the autism spectrum?

I have a 2-year-old who has been diagnosed with Sensory Processing Disorder. One developmental pediatrician said it is “on the spectrum.” Another one said it is not. What is the general consensus out there?

admin answers:

It is not on the spectrum, autism is one of five pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) which is a category of neurological disorders characterized by severe and pervasive impairment in several areas of development. The others included in PDD are Asperger’s Disorder, Childhood Disintegrative Disorder (CDD), Rett’s Disorder, & PDD-Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS).
Sensory Processing Disorder/Sensory Integration Disorder is a neurological disorder causing difficulties with processing information from the five classic senses; the sense of movement; and/or the positional sense. Sensory Processing Disorder/Sensory Integration Disorder has its own diagnosis, but it can be linked to other neurological conditions, including autism spectrum disorders, attention deficit disorder, dyslexia, developmental dyspraxia, tourette syndrome, multiple sclerosis, speech delays, among other conditions.

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Circuits In The Brain Reveal Why Neurological Disorders Occur

Editor’s Choice
Main Category: Neurology / Neuroscience
Also Included In: Autism;  Schizophrenia
Article Date: 10 Aug 2012 – 12:00 PDT Current ratings for:
Circuits In The Brain Reveal Why Neurological Disorders Occur
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The human brain contains billions of neurons that are arranged in complex circuits, which enable people to function with regard to controlling movements, perceiving the world and making decisions. In order to understand how the brain works and what malfunctions occur in neurological disorders it is crucial to decipher these brain circuits.

A new study, which is featured in the August 9 edition of Nature reveals that MIT neuroscientists have now come closer towards this goal, by discovering that two major classes of brain cells repress neural activity in specific mathematical ways by which one type subtracting from overall activation, whilst the other type divides it. ??

Mriganka Sur, the Paul E. Newton Professor of Neuroscience and senior author of the Nature paper, remarks:

“These are very simple but profound computations. The major challenge for neuroscience is to conceptualize massive amounts of data into a framework that can be put into the language of computation. It had been a mystery how these different cell types achieve that.”

?? The findings could assist in gaining a greater understanding about diseases that scientists believe are caused by imbalances in brain inhibition and excitation, such as autism, schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

The brain contains hundreds of different types of neurons, although most of the neurons are excitatory, with a smaller percentage being inhibitory. The delicate balance between these two influences is the basis for all sensory processing and cognitive function. Imbalances in neuron excitation and inhibition have been linked to autism and schizophrenia.

Sur, who is also the director of the Simons Center for the Social Brain at MIT says:

“There is growing evidence that alterations in excitation and inhibition are at the core of many subsets of neuropsychiatric disorders. It makes sense, because these are not disorders in the fundamental way in which the brain is built. They’re subtle disorders in brain circuitry and they affect very specific brain systems, such as the social brain.”??

The new study involved examining the two major classes of inhibitory neurons, i.e. the parvalbumin-expressing (PV) interneurons, which target the cell bodies of neurons and somatostatin-expressing (SOM) interneurons, which target dendrites, known as small, branching projections of other neurons. Both PV and SOM cells block pyramidal cells, which are a type of neuron.

To investigate how these neurons exert their influence, the team needed to develop a strategy in which they could activate specifically PV or SOM neurons in the living brain, so they could observe the reactions of the target pyramidal cells.

In a mouse model, the researchers genetically programmed either PV or SOM cells in the animals, so they produce a light-sensitive protein named channelrhodopsin, which when embedded in neurons’ cell membranes, controls the in- and out-coming flow of ions from the neurons, changing their electrical activity. By shining a light on the neurons, the researchers were able to stimulate them.

By combining the previous process with calcium imaging inside the target pyramidal cells, the calcium levels reflect a cell’s electrical activity and therefore enabled the team to determine the amount of repressed activity by the inhibitory cells.

Runyan explains: ?”Up until maybe three years ago, you could only just blindly record from whatever cell you ran into in the brain, but now we can actually target our recording and our manipulation to well-defined cell classes.” ??

The team wanted to find out how activation of these inhibitory neurons would affect the visual input of the brain process, and in the case of their study it was either horizontal, vertical or tilted bars. A presentation of such stimulus leads to individual cells in the eye responding to points of light. This information is then conveyed to the thalamus, which in turn relays it to the visual cortex. As the information travels through the brain it remains spatially encoded, so that a horizontal bar activates the corresponding rows of brain cells. ??

These cells also receive inhibitory signals, which assist in fine-tuning their response and also ensure that there is no over stimulation. The team discovered that these inhibitory signals have two specifically different effects; Inhibition by SOM neurons subtracts from the total amount of activity in the target cells, whilst inhibition by PV neurons divides the total amount of activity in the target cells. ??

Wilson comments: “Now that we finally have the technology to take the circuit apart, we can see what each of the components do, and we found that there may be a profound logic to how these networks are naturally designed.”

Both of these inhibition types also have different effects on various cell responses. Every sensory neuron responds only to a specific subset of stimuli like location or a range of brightness. When PV inhibition divides the activity, the target cell still responds to the same range of inputs, but with subtraction by SOM inhibition, the range of inputs to which cells respond narrows down, and therefore makes the cell more selective. ?

Unlike inhibition by SOM neurons, elevated inhibition by PV neurons also alters the response gain, which is a measurement of how much cells respond to changes in contrast. The researchers hypothesize that this circuitry is probably repeated throughout the brain and that is also plays a role in other types of sensory perception and higher cognitive functions. ??

Sur’s lab is planning to examine the function of PV and SOM inhibitory neurons in a mouse model of autism in mice that are missing the gene MeCP2. A lack of MeCP2 causes Rett Syndrome, a rare disease with symptoms similar to autism and other neurological and physical impairments. The team plans to test whether a lack of neuronal inhibition underlies the disease by using their new technology.

Written by Petra Rattue
Copyright: Medical News Today
Not to be reproduced without permission of Medical News Today

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posted by Marie on 19 Aug 2012 at 9:23 pm

As a nurse and mother of an adult daughter with schizophrenia I thank you for your work in research. It gives me hope and makes me feel better just to know that someone is trying to shed light on these serious illnesses. I don’t expect a cure for my daughter. With the treatment options now available I try to enhance her quality of life as best I can. What hurts the most is the stigma created by ignorance which research can help to eliminate.
Marie

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posted by Harold Rongey, Ph.D. on 12 Aug 2012 at 9:16 pm

This is all very interesting but I think it would be more informational if the approach were to look at the adequacy of the nutrition. Historically the body, when well nourished appears to know how to develop properly.
This research appear unlikely even when successful to provide the answers needed for prevention of the problem. It would provide ample opportunity to try to develop a medication but for what purpose? Medications neither prevent or cure such problems.

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‘Circuits In The Brain Reveal Why Neurological Disorders Occur’

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Treatment Process For Autism

To put it as simple as possible, autism can be diagnosed as a symptom, which occurs in early childhood and causes generative communication disorders. A neurological disorder, children suffering from autism refrains from all types of social interaction. What sets these children off is their inability to express themselves properly. The symptoms develop in the as early as two to three years and research has that the disorder is on the rise, with every two person of the 10000 people are affected. This is much higher in males than in females.

What is most difficult in dealing with this disease is that there is no concrete path to cure it. People know very little about this ailment. Fortunately, some recent discoveries in medical science have shown positive results in curing neurological disorders. This kind of disease attacks patient’s central nervous system and hinders their natural growth of understanding. Experts in medical science have been searching for a cure to wipe this severe disease from this world, and at last, their long and frantic search paid off when they discovered the positive effect of antioxidants in our body.

Hyperbaric chamber
Let us talk about how ‘antioxidants’ help us to cure neurological diseases. Antioxidants are a common element found in oxygen. These elements join with our blood cells and force our blood steam to reach to the damaged tissues and heal it. Now, in order to do that, we would need to breathe pure oxygen in high atmospheric pressure. To, make it happen, ‘hyperbaric chamber’ stepped in the game. This machine is designed to provide pure oxygen to patients at high atmospheric pressure. High air pressure increases our oxygen intake and our blood cells become saturated with pure oxygen. Our antioxidant-induced blood cells heal damaged cells faster.

Treatment includes more
Treatment for autism sure starts with hyperbaric chamber but it does not finish with it. You will need to fix up a diet chart, counseling, and physiotherapy session to help the patient in developing communication skills. Before hiring a caregiver or enlisting a patient to a medical center, you must do some research to learn about their success rate in curing neurological disorder. The choices you are about to make to start a process in order to cure an autism affected patient; will decide the success or failure of the process. Therefore, every step must be taken cautiously.

Therefore, it is apparent that not only medicinal treatment, neurologically damaged patients needs a precisely planned process to cure autism totally.

Kevin Halls is a researcher on WI Autism. His tips and suggestions towards curing autism proved to be helpful. Thus he is sharing his thoughts with us.

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Autism, Obesity And Schizophrenia Gene Isolated

Editor’s Choice
Academic Journal
Main Category: Autism
Also Included In: Schizophrenia;  Obesity / Weight Loss / Fitness;  Genetics
Article Date: 19 May 2012 – 9:00 PDT Current ratings for:
‘Autism, Obesity And Schizophrenia Gene Isolated’
4 stars2 and a half stars
The size of a baby’s head is often related to neurological disorders, such as autism – which affects 1 in 88 children. Now, researchers at Duke University Medical Center have identified genes responsible for head size at birth by inserting human genes into zebrafish. The study is published online in the journal Nature.

Nicholas Katsanis, Ph.D., Jean and George Brumley Jr. M.D., Professor of Developmental Biology, and Professor of Pediatrics and Cell Biology (both at Duke University Medical Center, explained:

“In medical research, we need to dissect events in biology so we can understand the precise mechanisms that give rise to neurodevelopmental traits. We need expert scientists to work side by side with clinicians who see such anatomic and other problems in patients, if we are to effectively solve many of our medical problems.”

Although the team knew that a region of chromosome 16 contributes to autism and schizophrenia, they discovered that alterations within this region are also associated to changes in a newborn’s head size.

According to the researchers, the region had large deletions and duplications in DNA, making it harder to address the problem, the authors explained.

Katsanis, who is also director of the Duke Center for Human Disease Modeling said:

“Interpretation is harrowingly hard,” because a duplication of DNA or missing DNA normally involves multiple genes.

It is very difficult to go from ‘here is a region with many genes, sometimes over 50’ to ‘these are genes that are driving this pathology’.

There was a light bulb moment. The area of the genome we were exploring gave rise to reciprocal (opposite) defects in terms of brain cell growth, so we realized that overexpressing a gene in question might give one phenotype – a smaller head, while shutting down the same gene might yield the other, a larger head.”

The team inserted a common duplication area of human chromosome 16 known to contain 29 genes into zebrafish embryos in order to identify which might cause a small head (microcephaly) in the fish. The researchers then suppressed the same gene set to determine whether any caused a large head (macrocephaly) in the fish. They knew that deletion of the region that contained these 29 genes occurred in 1.7% of children with autism.

Katsanis explained:

“Now we can go from a genetic finding that is dosage-sensitive and start asking reasonable questions about this gene as it pertains to neurocognitive traits, which is a big leap.

Many human conditions have anatomical features that are also related to genetics. There are major limitations in studying autistic or schizophrenia behavior in zebrafish, but we can measure head size, jaw size, or facial abnormalities.”

The scientists found that a single gene, called KCTD13, is responsible for determining head size in the fish. The gene works by regulating the production and destruction of new brain cells.

Katsanis explained:

“This gene contributes to autism cases, and probably is associated with schizophrenia and also childhood obesity.

Once you have the protein, you can start asking valuable functional questions and learning what the gene does in the animal or human.”

According to the researchers, hundreds, if not thousands of such chromosomal deletions and duplications have been identified in individuals with a wide variety of clinical problems, particularly in those suffering from neurodevelopment disorders.

Katsanis explained:

“Now we may have an efficient tool for dissecting them, which gives us the ability to improve both diagnosis and understanding of disease mechanisms.”

Findings from this study indicate that KCTD13 is a major contributor to some cases of autism, and also highlights the synergistic action of this gene with two other genes in the region, named MVP and MAPK3.

Written by Grace Rattue
Copyright: Medical News Today
Not to be reproduced without permission of Medical News Today

Visit our autism section for the latest news on this subject. “KCTD13 is a major driver of mirrored neuroanatomical phenotypes of the 16p11.2 copy number variant”
Christelle Golzio, Jason Willer, Michael E. Talkowski, Edwin C. Oh,Yu Taniguchi, Sébastien Jacquemont, Alexandre Reymond, Mei Sun, Akira Sawa, James F. Gusella, Atsushi Kamiya, Jacques S. Beckmann & Nicholas Katsanis
Nature 485, 363–367 (17 May 2012) doi:10.1038/nature11091 Please use one of the following formats to cite this article in your essay, paper or report:

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1 Jun. 2012. APA

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‘Autism, Obesity And Schizophrenia Gene Isolated’

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Gene Related To Autism, Schizophrenia And Obesity Isolated By Zebrafish Study

Main Category: Autism
Also Included In: Schizophrenia;  Obesity / Weight Loss / Fitness;  Genetics
Article Date: 18 May 2012 – 0:00 PDT Current ratings for:
‘Gene Related To Autism, Schizophrenia And Obesity Isolated By Zebrafish Study’
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What can a fish tell us about human brain development? Researchers at Duke University Medical Center transplanted a set of human genes into a zebrafish and then used it to identify genes responsible for head size at birth.

Researchers at Duke University Medical Center transplanted a set of human genes into a zebrafish and then used it to identify genes responsible for head size at birth.

Head size in human babies is a feature that is related to autism, a condition that recent figures have shown to be more common than previously reported, 1 in 88 children in a March 2012 study. Head size is also a feature of other major neurological disorders, such as schizophrenia.

“In medical research, we need to dissect events in biology so we can understand the precise mechanisms that give rise to neurodevelopmental traits,” said senior author Nicholas Katsanis, Ph.D., Jean and George Brumley Jr., MD, Professor of Developmental Biology, and Professor of Pediatrics and Cell Biology. “We need expert scientists to work side by side with clinicians who see such anatomic and other problems in patients, if we are to effectively solve many of our medical problems.”

The study was published online in the journal Nature.

Katsanis knew that a region on chromosome 16 was one of the largest genetic contributors to autism and schizophrenia, but a conversation at a European medical meeting pointed him to information that changes within that same region of the genome also were related to changes in a newborn’s head size.

The problem was difficult to address because the region had large deletions and duplications in DNA, which are the most common mutational mechanisms in humans. “Interpretation is harrowingly hard,” said Katsanis, who is also director of the Duke Center for Human Disease Modeling.

The reason is that a duplication of DNA or missing DNA usually involves several genes. “It is very difficult to go from ‘here is a region with many genes, sometimes over 50’ to ‘these are the genes that are driving this pathology,'” Katsanis said.

“There was a light bulb moment,” Katsanis said. “The area of the genome we were exploring gave rise to reciprocal (opposite) defects in terms of brain cell growth, so we realized that overexpressing a gene in question might give one phenotype – a smaller head, while shutting down the same gene might yield the other, a larger head.”

The researchers transplanted a common duplication area of human chromosome 16 known to contain 29 genes into zebrafish embryos and then systematically turned up the activity of each transplanted human gene to find which might cause a small head (microcephaly) in the fish. They then suppressed the same gene set and asked whether any of them caused the reciprocal defect: larger heads (macrocephaly).

The researchers knew that deletion of the region that contained these 29 genes occurred in 1.7% of children with autism.

It took the team a few months to dissect such a “copy number variant” – an alteration of the genome that results in an abnormal number of one or more sections of chromosomal DNA.

“Now we can go from a genetic finding that is dosage-sensitive and start asking reasonable questions about this gene as it pertains to neurocognitive traits, which is a big leap,” Katsanis said. Neurocognitive refers to the ability to think, concentrate, reason, remember, process information, learn, understand and speak.

Many human conditions have anatomical features that are also related to genetics, he said. “There are major limitations in studying autistic or schizophrenic behavior in zebrafish, but we can measure head size, jaw size, or facial abnormalities.”

The single gene in question, KCTD13, is responsible for driving head size in zebrafish by regulating the creation and destruction of new neurons (brain cells). This discovery let the team focus on the analogous gene in humans. “This gene contributes to autism cases, and probably is associated with schizophrenia and also childhood obesity,” Katsanis said.

Once the gene has been uncovered, researchers can examine the protein it produces. “Once you have the protein, you can start asking valuable functional questions and learning what the gene does in the animal or human,” Katsanis said.

Copy number variants, such as the ones this team found on chromosome 16, are now thought to be one of the most common sources of genetic mutations. Hundreds, if not thousands, of such chromosomal deletions and duplications have been found in patients with a broad range of clinical problems, particularly neurodevelopmental disorders.

“Now we may have an efficient tool for dissecting them, which gives us the ability to improve both diagnosis and understanding of disease mechanisms,” Katsanis said.

The current study suggests that KCTD13 is a major contributor to some cases of autism, but also points to the synergistic action of this gene with two other genes in the region, named MVP and MAPK3, Katsanis said.

Article adapted by Medical News Today from original press release. Click ‘references’ tab above for source.
Visit our autism section for the latest news on this subject. Other authors include lead author Christelle Golzio, Jason Willer and Edwin Oh of the Duke Center for Human Disease Modeling and Department of Cell Biology; Mike Talkowski, Mei Sun and Jim Guzella from the Molecular Neurogenetics Unit, Center for Human Genetic Research, Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston; Sebastien Jacquemont, Alexandre Reymond and Jacques Beckmann from the Service de Génétique Médicale, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, in Lausanne, Switzerland; and Yu Taniguchi, Akira Sawa and Atsushi Kamiya from the Department of Psychiatry, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine in Baltimore.
Funding is from a Silvio O. Conte Center grant from the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), National Institutes of Health grants, the Simons Foundation, the Autism Consortium of Boston, the Leenaards Foundation Prize, the Swiss National Science Foundation, a National Science Foundation Sinergia grant, an NIMH National Research Service Award, and an academic study award from the University of Lausanne.
NIH-related grants: Silvio O. Conte center grant from the National Institute of Mental Health, NIH MH-084018 (AS, AK, and NK), grant MH-091230 (AK), grant HD06286 (JFG) and an NIMH National Research Service Award (F32MH087123).
Duke University Medical Center Please use one of the following formats to cite this article in your essay, paper or report:

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‘Gene Related To Autism, Schizophrenia And Obesity Isolated By Zebrafish Study’

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Mechanism May Aid Treatment For Alzheimer’s And Neurological Disorders Associated With Gamma-Wave Alterations And Cognitive Impairments

Main Category: Alzheimer’s / Dementia
Also Included In: Epilepsy;  Autism
Article Date: 29 Apr 2012 – 0:00 PDT

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Scientists at the Gladstone Institutes have unraveled a process by which depletion of a specific protein in the brain contributes to the memory problems associated with Alzheimer’s disease. These findings provide new insights into the disease’s development and may lead to new therapies that could benefit the millions of people worldwide suffering from Alzheimer’s and other devastating neurological disorders.

The study, led by Gladstone Investigator Jorge J. Palop, PhD, revealed that low levels of a protein, called Nav1.1, disrupt the electrical activity between brain cells. Such activity is crucial for healthy brain function and memory. Indeed, the researchers found that restoring Nav1.1 levels in mice that were genetically modified to mimic key aspects of Alzheimer’s disease (AD-mice) improved learning and memory functions and increased their lifespan. They report their findings in Cell, available online.

“It is estimated that more than 30 million people worldwide suffer from Alzheimer’s disease and that number is expected to rise dramatically in the near future,” said Lennart Mucke, MD, who directs neurological research at Gladstone, an independent and nonprofit biomedical-research organization. “This research improves our understanding of the biological processes that underlie cognitive dysfunction in this disease and could open the door for new therapeutic interventions.”

The researchers’ findings suggest that Nav1.1 levels in special regulatory nerve cells called parvalbumin cells, or PV cells, are essential to generate healthy brain-wave activity – and that problems in this process contribute to cognitive decline in AD-mice and possibly in patients with Alzheimer’s.

In the brain, neurons form highly interconnected networks, using chemical and electrical signals to communicate with each other. The researchers investigated whether this communication between neurons is disrupted in AD-mice, and if so, how this may affect the symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease.

To study this, they performed electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings – a technique that detects abnormalities in the brain’s electrical waves such as those found in patients with epilepsy. They found that similar abnormalities emerged during periods of reduced gamma-wave oscillations – a type of brain wave that is crucial to regulating learning and memory.

“Like a conductor in an orchestra, PV cells regulate brain rhythms by precisely controlling excitatory brain activity,” said Laure Verret, PhD, postdoctoral fellow and lead author. “We found that PV cells in patients with Alzheimer’s and in AD-mice have low levels of the protein Nav1.1 – likely contributing to PV cell dysfunction. As a consequence, AD-mice had abnormal brain rhythms. By restoring Nav1.1 levels, we were able to re-establish normal brain function.”

Indeed, the scientists found that increasing Nav1.1 levels in PV cells improves brain wave activity, learning, memory and survival rates in AD-mice.

“Enhancing Nav1.1 activity, and consequently improving PV cell function, may help in the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease and other neurological disorders associated with gamma-wave alterations and cognitive impairments such as epilepsy, autism and schizophrenia,” said Dr. Palop, who is also an assistant professor of neurology at the University of California, San Francisco, with which Gladstone is affiliated. “These findings may allow us to develop therapies to help patients with these devastating diseases.”

Article adapted by Medical News Today from original press release. Click ‘references’ tab above for source.
Visit our alzheimer’s / dementia section for the latest news on this subject. Other scientists who participated in this research at Gladstone include Giao Hang, PhD, Kaitlyn Ho, Nino Devidze, PhD, and Anatol Kreitzer, PhD. Funding was provided by a variety of sources, including the National Institutes of Health, the Stephen D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation, the Philippe Foundation and the Pew and McKnight Foundations.
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4 May. 2012. APA
Gladstone Institutes. (2012, April 29). “Mechanism May Aid Treatment For Alzheimer’s And Neurological Disorders Associated With Gamma-Wave Alterations And Cognitive Impairments.” Medical News Today. Retrieved from
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posted by Bettina Buzzi on 30 Apr 2012 at 1:53 am

Why not normalize the brain wave activity of the brain waves with the help of neuroptimal or neurofeedback? A most successful treatment without any side effects. I am always amazed at the ignorance of brain scientists and medical staff in this regard

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‘Mechanism May Aid Treatment For Alzheimer’s And Neurological Disorders Associated With Gamma-Wave Alterations And Cognitive Impairments’

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Closing the Door on the Autism Epidemic – Early Prediction and Successful Intervention Now Possible

Closing the Door on the Autism Epidemic

In order to rid this nation and the world of autism we must first know the cause for these neurological disorders. With the cause understood, we can predict which individuals will be at the highest risk for developing the symptoms of autism. This test covers the entire age range as individuals have been known to incur these risk factors at any age. The prediction of autism is now possible by completing a simple survey. This survey is based upon fifteen environmental and dietary markers for autism that have been shown to be accurate more than 95% of the time in a study involving more than a thousand individuals. It is believed this test, with early intervention for those found to be at high risk, will allow us to close the door on the autism epidemic thus stopping the development of more children with autism.

Early Prediction
The recently developed screening test has been shown to identify the greatest risk factors for developing autism and it is now being implemented on a limited basis. The symptoms of autism are simply an expression of the various nutritional deficiencies associated with picky eaters or those who fail to eat an adequate diet for good health. The expressions of autism are many and include any or several of the following: toe walking, rocking, tantrums, meltdowns, repetitive speech, lack of eye contact, tics, speech impairment or non-verbal, etc. that pose social problems plus many other symptoms. Some individuals express amazing abilities in math, art, or music but the cause for these talents are not well understood.

The incidence of autism in the U.S. is about 1% of the population or 1 in 88 children and is reported to be increasing at the rate of 10-17% per year. This survey is appropriate in all cases to predict the risk of developing autism. The survey will identify if the individual is in a high risk category even though symptoms are not yet present.

Successful Intervention
Once the survey is completed and the level of risk has been identified, the type and extent of early intervention will depend upon the analysis of the survey results. The appropriate intervention will totally eliminate the risks identified in most cases and at a fraction of the cost associated with searching for a medical solution. The primary treatments generally employed by the medical professions for autism, are for the treatment of medical problems. Autism is not a medical problem but having autism can lead to numerous medical problems.

Dr. Rongey is a Food Scientist & Nutritionist. His niche is in identifying the cause of chronic disorders. The cause of chronic disorders has been researched for the past sixteen years and autism for almost five years. Several books concerning the cause of chronic disorders are available in ebook or paperback format. His recently developed screening test is being implemented on a limited basis so that the success of the various interventions can be more accurately confirmed. For more information on this research or the availability of the books on autism or healthy living, you can contact him as follows:
Harold Rongey, Ph.D. email: hrongey@gmail.com Phone: 858-740-7272 or his web site at http://www.whostolemyfood.com/

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Untangling The Genetic Roots Of Autism

Main Category: Autism
Also Included In: Genetics
Article Date: 09 Mar 2012 – 1:00 PST

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With the “Refrigerator Mother” notion about the cause of autism a distant and discredited memory, scientists are making remarkable progress in untangling the genetic roots of the condition, which affects millions of children and adults, according to an article in the current edition of Chemical & Engineering News. C&EN is the weekly newsmagazine of the American Chemical Society, the world’s largest scientific society.

In the story, C&EN Associate Editor Lauren K. Wolf points out that most people in the 1960s believed autism resulted from a lack of maternal warmth and emotional attachment. It was a hypothesis popularized by Austrian-born American child psychologist and writer Bruno Bettelheim. Now scientists around the globe are focusing on genes that have been implicated in autism and related conditions, collectively termed “autism spectrum disorders.” That research may solve mysteries about autism, which affects 1 in 110 children in the U.S. Among them: what causes autism, why does it affect more boys than girls and what can be done to prevent and treat it?

C&EN explains that scientists now have solidly implicated certain genes as being involved in autism. Most of those genes play a role in the transmission of signals through the junctions or “synapses” between nerve cells. Synapses are the territory where one nerve releases a chemical signal that hands off messages to an adjoining nerve. The human brain has an estimated 1,000 trillion synapses, and they are hot spots for miscommunications that underpin neurological disorders like autism. Scientists now are gleaning information on what those genes do, what brain circuits they affect and how the proteins they produce function. In doing so, they are paving the way for future medications for autism spectrum disorders.

Article adapted by Medical News Today from original press release. Click ‘references’ tab above for source.
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American Chemical Society. “Untangling The Genetic Roots Of Autism.” Medical News Today. MediLexicon, Intl., 9 Mar. 2012. Web.
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‘Untangling The Genetic Roots Of Autism’

Please note that we publish your name, but we do not publish your email address. It is only used to let you know when your message is published. We do not use it for any other purpose. Please see our privacy policy for more information.

If you write about specific medications or operations, please do not name health care professionals by name.

All opinions are moderated before being included (to stop spam)

Contact Our News Editors

For any corrections of factual information, or to contact the editors please use our feedback form.

Please send any medical news or health news press releases to:

Note: Any medical information published on this website is not intended as a substitute for informed medical advice and you should not take any action before consulting with a health care professional. For more information, please read our terms and conditions.


View the original article here