Tag Archives: Intelligence Tests

Question?: Rett Syndrome Research

Ruth asks…

What is difference betweeen these types of autism….?

Core autism and atypical autism
if you have used resources please state its for case study.
Thanks

admin answers:

A simple Google will find many sources on the web. In this way you will be able to find what you want and what fits your research. In the mean time here are a few of the many types of autism.
Autistic disorder. This is what most people think of when they hear the word “autism.” It refers to problems with social interactions, communication and imaginative play in children younger than 3 years.
Asperger’s syndrome. These children don’t have a problem with language — in fact, they tend to score in the average or above-average range on intelligence tests. But they have the same social problems and limited scope of interests as children with autistic disorder.
Pervasive developmental disorder or PDD — also known as atypical autism. This is a kind of catchall category for children who have some autistic problems but who don’t fit into other categories.
Rett’s disorder. Known to occur only in girls, Rett’s children begin to develop normally. Then they begin to lose their communication and social skills. Beginning at the age of 1 to 4 years, repetitive hand movements replace purposeful use of the hands.
Childhood disintegrative disorder. These children develop normally for at least two years, and then lose some or most of their communication and social skills.

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Choosing Good Toys For Low-Functioning Autistic Children

Children are diagnosed as growing up with low-functioning autism based on the intensity of symptoms and results from intelligence tests. What does this mean exactly for the mother or father who wants to purchase the appropriate toys for these schoolchildren? It means that children with low-functioning autism are more likely to display one or more of the following behaviors:

An inability to articulate themselves using language or to comprehend languageAn inability to live without assistance from othersAn inability to use normal nonverbal gestures used for communicationAvoids eye contactHas a preference for being solitaryLacks physical coordinationEither a strong sensitivity to sensory stimulation, or a lack of sensitivity to such stimulation (sounds, lights, touch, tastes, odors)Emotions flip-flop to extremes, such as breaking down seemingly without reason.Very rashVery combativeMay like to self-injurePhysical manifestations, such as being below their peer group in weight and statureLags other children in their age range academically

Because of these symptoms, choosing an appropriate toy for kids with low-functioning autism is especially difficult. Even though high-functioning autistic kids may play and learn well with age-appropriate toys, low-functioning autistics may require toys designed for children below their age group, meaning toys that pose no safety hazards and are easier to comprehend.

Characteristics of Good Toys

Low-functioning autistic children have struggles expressing themselves verbally, which prevents them from communicating with others with ease and forces them to spend most of their time in solitary activities. They are therefore inclined to gravitate towards toys that allow them to play alone and become familiar with such toys. But if these toys can also be used for playing with others, you may have an easier time getting them to use the toy as a way to communicate with others.

Because of their emotional extremes and the risk that they might show aggression towards others or themselves, you will want toys that are safe to play with and won’t lead to risk of injuring others. (This means don’t choose toys that shoot missiles!)

Finally, toys that help them improve their motor abilities will be crucial during their youth because this is an important period for motor development.

Specific Toy Suggestions

The most appropriate toys are those that capture the interest of babies and toddlers because low-functioning autistic children operate at a level several years below other children of their age.

For alone-play toys that can also be played with others and are safe, a good choice may be cloth hand puppets, such as those made by Melissa and Doug. Melissa and Doug manufactured a variety of low-cost ($10-$20) hand puppets that range from dragons to princesses. Something to be careful about is the wooden dowel that comes with the puppet for use in manipulating the arm. You can easily detach this from the puppet if you are afraid that it might cause safety issues.

Creation sets for young children are also an appropriate selection for toys that can be played alone as well as with adults. Duplo (the young child’s version of Lego) is a typical choice, as well as a variety of toddler stacking toys such as the Fisher-Price Little Superstar Classical Stacker. These toys generally run $20-40.

Wooden Puzzles are also good, safe options for solitary and adult time play activities. Again, Melissa and Doug is an appropriate option for these toys since they are inexpensive, pleasing to the eye, and safe for young kids.

Finally, soft balls marketed for toddlers are good choices for use in developing motor skills. The best way to make use of such toys is to work with the child in catch and throw games, which will develop manual dexterity. Plush balls are great options, and you should stay away from foam balls such as those made by Nerf since a child could easily ingest bits of the foam.

Thanks for reading this article, and I hope it helps you in your search! Another article that is useful may be one about shopping for autism toys.

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Autism Healthcare

The United States has a fragmented healthcare system made of many private health care facilities that are largely owned by the private sector. Primary care doctors are usually the first point of entry when there are any health concerns before referrals to any other appropriate health establishment if necessary. There are thousands of insurance companies that cover private health insurance and up until fairly recently it has been very hard to get health insurance to cover autism because it is risky and treatment is very expensive. This has recently changed due to new legislation but availability can depend on whether a particular State has enacted autism insurance legislation or coverage for government funded health programs such as Medicaid.

The causes of autism are not readily known or available. The U.S. Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) report that autism and related disorders are more common than previously thought. There is an increase in those being diagnosed and 3-4 times as many boys than girls are affected. On average one in 110 children born in the U.S. have autism. One in 70 boys and one in 315 girls are affected. It is thought by professionals that the increase is due to a wider definition of the spectrum.

It is essential to get an expert diagnosis in order to access the different services and treatments that may be available as it is beneficial to begin an early intervention program. An evaluation and assessment of the child may be done by a multidisciplinary team of professionals. Doctors who specializes in autism will observe the child, ask parents questions about the child’s development and behavior and do a variety of tests such as intelligence tests to evaluate the child’s strengths and weaknesses.

The following are some examples of the types of people and places listed by the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) of whom to go to that will make a referral to, or provide diagnostic and treatment services (NIMH):

Family doctors
Mental health specialists such as psychiatrists, psychologists and counselors
Community mental health centers
Health maintenance organizations
Hospital psychiatry departments and outpatients clinics
State hospital outpatient clinics
Local medical and/or psychiatric societies

Once diagnosed, the quest to find affordable health insurance coverage to cover autism can begin. Around half of states currently have enacted autism insurance legislation which makes healthcare insurance coverage for more available, though it can be expensive. Recent laws have increased coverage for government funded health programs such as Medicaid for those on low incomes and disability is covered if it comes within the disability guidelines, so more families now qualify for assistance.

There are all kinds of treatments and interventions available and a treatment plan can be devised and tailored towards the individual child. Different teams of specialists can evaluate such things as speech, communication and motor skills. The main ways of treating the child can be through:

Behaviour Therapies and other types of therapies

Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) can be used to shape and modify behavior. Occupational Therapy is available to work on fine and gross motor skills, for example, and there are other therapies such as Speech Therapy.

Individualized Education Plan (IEP) for school age children

Parents are encouraged to be involved with teachers in setting targets or goals to be reached within the particular school year and describes any special support required in meeting them.

Medication

Currently, there are no medications available to treat autism, but there are supplements that can treat and manage some of the symptoms. Ritalin, for example, can be used to treat impulsivity and overactivity and there are other drugs that can be used to treat behaviors such as aggressive behaviors or repetitive behaviors.

Though healthcare is fragmented in the United States, there is a wide range of therapies and interventions available for children with an Autism Spectrum Disorder. Accessing these can depend on the child having an expert diagnosis on autism and on what health insurance coverage the child has.

References:

CDC. Cdc.gov: How Many Children Have Autism? Retrieved 29 March, 2011, from
cdc.gov/ncbddd/features/counting-autism.html

NIMH. Nimh,nih.gov: How To Find Help
nimh.nih.gov/health/topics/getting-help-locate-services/index.shtml

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