Tag Archives: Greek Word

Autism Spectrum Disorder

INTRODUCTION

Every parent has hopes and dreams for their children and all parents want their kids to

be the best and even though no one is ever perfect, they would still try to make them

perfect, But all this may be shattered once this little boy or girl gets diagnosed with

one of the most alarming disorders in the world of childhood disorders which is not

only a serious disability; but is also a bewildering one this disorder is called Autism.

A. Title:

Autism Spectrum Disorder

B. Why Autism?

there were six childhood psychological disorders other then autism that any person would find very interesting to do a research about, but autism is found to be one of the most dangerous and confusing childhood disorder any parent can find also learning a bit about autism in Oman made it very important to talk and explain this disorder to Omani parents and the Omani community as a whole.

C. Purpose:

To spread awareness on the Autistic Spectrum Disorder in Oman and this will have a great and positive impact on the treatment of the Omani children that were diagnosed with Autism.

 

 

D. Objectives:
To give the reader a clear and detailed information on the Autistic Spectrum Disorder.
To spread awareness on the Autistic Spectrum Disorder to the Omani people in specific.
E. Limits and Difficulties:
The time given before the dead-line was not enough.
References like books, articles, etc… Related to the subject were very limited.

 

F. Methodology:

The methods used to complete this report included reading from different sources including: Books, Magazines, and Web sites also visiting The Muscat Autism Center was very helpful.

 

 

 

 

 

Autism Spectrum Disorder

The Root of the word “Autism:

The word Autism comes or drives from the Greek word “Auto” which means self, and the adjective word “Autistic” literally means alone.

In the world of psychology and psychiatry autism or Autistic Spectrum Disorder is defined as:

A life-long brain disorder that is normally diagnosed in early childhood.
A disorder that causes kids to experience the world differently from the way most other kids do.
A complex developmental disability that typically appears during the first three years of life and affects a person’s ability to communicate and interact with others.

The history of Autism:

The word “Autism” was first used in 1943 by a psychiatric and physician called Leo Kanner who wrote a paper on “Autistic Disturbance of Attitude contact ” for a journal called: nervous child” which does not exist anymore, Dr. Leo wrote that article after conducting a research on 11 children of ages between two to eight years old who had similar symptoms which included difficulties communicating with others, difficulties interacting with others, and having unusual interests. Before the publication of that article children with the previous symptoms were labeled as “schizophrenic”. (Kocgel & Lazebnik)

 

Types of Autism

 

There are many types of autism some are known while others are not known, but there are 5 main types that most researchers agree with, which are:

1) Classic Autism:

This type can be recognized before the age of 3 years, but can be diagnosed later in life. Children diagnosed with classic autism show lack of eye to eye contact, lack of affection or emotional contact with others, difficulty to socialize and interact with others, intense wish for sameness in routine, and develop language late or not at all.

Children diagnosed with Classic autism also show high levels of Visio -spatial skills* but major difficulties in other areas.

2) Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) which  includes:

A)    Aspergers Syndrome:

Is a form of autism in which speech development and IQ are normal, but in which social disabilities can be compounded by depression and mental health problems [1]. This syndrome is a higher functioning disorder than classic autism and can range from mild to saver. A child diagnosed with Aspergers Syndrome can exhibit a number of characteristics, show deficiencies in social skills and have difficulties with transition or change ( they compulsively stick to rituals and any changes in their routine can upset them), they also find it difficult to read body language and to determine the proper body space.

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Some of the kids that were diagnosed with Aspergers Syndrome have shown reduced sensitivity to pain & an increased sensitivity to bright light and loud noises.

*Visual Spatial Learners have a very wide imagination, that helps them make a whole movie just by reading something, that is because they can draw a picture in their mind about anything they read or hear.

 

B)  Rett Syndrome or Rex Syndrome:

This is a neurological & developmental disorder that is marked by poor head growth. Some doctors claim that Rett or Rex Syndrome is not a part of autism spectrum disorder, the reason behind this claim is that Rett or Rex Syndrome is a disorder that mostly occurs in females whereas autism affects mostly males.

Children suffering from this syndrome show loss of muscle tone, diminished eye contact, and crawling or walking problems, they also stop using their hands and often develop stereotyped hand movements such as: wringing, clapping, or patting their hands. Kids diagnosed with Rett or Rex Syndrome loses the ability to perform motor skills.

C) Childhood Disintegrative Disorder (CDD):

This disorder occurs a little late in the child’s life, first the child seems perfectly normal then by the age of 2-4 years they start to regress, where they stop socializing with people, loss potty-training skills, stop playing, and stop making friends. The difference between autism and CDD is the long period of normal development below age 2. (Bock & Stauth, 1999)

D) Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS):

A child that exhibits some but not all of the classic autism symptoms is said to have PDD-NOS.

Children with PDD-NOS either do not fully meet the criteria of symptoms used to diagnose any of the four specific types of autism or do not have the degree of impairment described in any of the above four specific types.

Causes of Autism

Until this very day no one knows what the exact cause of autism is the only thing that is clear is that autism affects 1 of 150 kids.

The brain contains over 100 billion nerve cells called neurons. Each neuron may have hundreds or thousands of connections that carry massages to other nerve cells in the brain and body. The connections and the chemical messengers (called neurotransmitters) let the neurons that help you see, move, remember, and work together as they should, but for some reason some of the cells and connections in the brain of a kid with autism –especially those that affect communication, emotion, and senses- don’t develop properly or get damaged. Scientists are still trying to understand how and why this happens [1].

Is lack of a mother’s affection a cause for autism?

While the definite causes of autism is not yet found or clear, it is clear that there is no any connection between bad parenting or having a cold mother and the development of autism.

At first Dr. Leo Kanner, the psychiatrist who first described autism as a unique condition in 1943, believed that it was caused by cold, unloving mothers. Bruno Bettelheim, a renowned professor of child development supported this misinterpretation of autism. Their promotion of the idea that unloving mothers caused their children’s autism created a generation of parents who carried the tremendous burden of guilt for their children’s disability.

In the 1960s and 70s, Dr. Bernard Remand, the father of a son with autism, who later founded the Autism Society of America and the Autism Research Institute, helped the medical community understand that autism is not caused by cold parents but rather is a biological disorder.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The diagnosis of Autism

There are no any biological tests that can be done to detect if a child is suffering from autism or not, the diagnosis of autism depends solely on observation and also educational and psychological testing.

An autism-specific screening tool, such as the Modified Checklist of Autism in Toddlers (MCHAT) should be used. The MCHAT is a list of simple questions about the child. The answers determine whether he or she should be referred to a specialist, usually a Developmental Pediatrician, a Neurologist, a Psychiatrist or a Psychologist, for further evaluation.

What do doctors do?

Often, specialists work together as a team to figure out what is wrong. The team might include a pediatrician, a pediatric neurologist, a pediatric develop- mentalist, a child psychiatrist, a child psychologist, speech and language therapists, and others. The team members study how the child plays, learns, communicates, and behaves. The team listens carefully to what parents have noticed, too. Using the information they have gathered doctors can decide whether a child has autism or not.

DSM-IV criteria for a diagnosis of Autism:

A total of six (or more) items from heading (A), (B), and (C), with at least two from (A), and one each from (B) and (C):

(A) Qualitative impairment in social interaction, as manifested by at least two of the following:

• Marked impairments in the use of multiple nonverbal behaviors such as eye-to- eye gaze, facial expression, body posture, and gestures to regulate social interaction.
• Failure to develop peer relationships appropriate to developmental level.
• A lack of spontaneous seeking to share enjoyment, interests, or achievements with other people, (e.g., by a lack of showing, bringing, or pointing out objects of interest to other people).
• A lack of social or emotional reciprocity.

(B) Qualitative impairments in communication as manifested by at least one of the following:

• Delay in or total lack of, the development of spoken language (not accompanied by an attempt to compensate through alternative modes of communication such as gesture or mime).
• In individuals with adequate speech, marked impairment in the ability to initiate or sustain a conversation with others.
• Stereotyped and repetitive use of language or idiosyncratic language.
• Lack of varied, spontaneous make-believe play or social imitative play appropriate to developmental level.

(C) Restricted repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior, interests and activities, as manifested by at least two of the following:

• Encompassing preoccupation with one or more stereotyped and restricted patterns of interest that is abnormal either in intensity or focus.
• Apparently inflexible adherence to specific, nonfunctional routines or rituals.
• Stereotyped and repetitive motor mannerisms (e.g. Hand or finger flapping or twisting, or complex whole-body movements).
• Persistent preoccupation with parts of objects.

II. Delays or abnormal functioning in at least one of the following areas, with onset prior to age 3 years:

(A) Social interaction.
(B) Language is used in social communication.
(C) Symbolic or imaginative play.

III. The disturbance is not better accounted for by Rett’s Disorder or Childhood Disintegrative Disorder.[1]

 

 

 

 

 

[1] (diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders , fourth edition)

 

Treatments used to cure clients diagnosed with Autism

There is no cure for autism but there are treatments that will help reduce the intense of the disorder and help the child and the family cope with the disorder.

Treatment for autism is a very intensive, comprehensive undertaking that involves the child’s entire family and a team of professionals. Some programs may take place in the child’s home with professionals and trained therapists and may include Parent Training for the child under supervision of a professional. Some programs are delivered in a specialized center, classroom or preschool.

There are many therapies and treatments for autism here are some of the most common ones [1] :

Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA)
Pivotal Response Therapy (PRT)
Verbal therapy
Floor time
Relationship Development Intervention

 

 

 

 

 

[1] (http://www.autismspeaks.org/treatment/floortime.php)

Autism in Oman

As mention in the beginning of the report the main objective from this report is to spread introduce the “Autism Spectrum Disorder” to the Omani people, because after a field research that was made in Oman on children suffering from autism the number 4000,200,1, and 0 was the result of this research.

What does 4000, 200, 1, and 0 stand for?

4000 = number cases of autism in Oman.

200 = number of cases diagnosed in Oman.

1 = number of child psychiatry clinic in Oman.

0 = the future number of undiagnosed cases of autism in Oman.

After reading and understanding the above number it is belived that no more words or discussion is need accept:

“There is a problem you are the solution. There is a dream, you make it real”

Dr. Yahya Al-Farsi

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Conclusion

Autism Spectrum Disorder is a very scary developmental disorder that deserves special attention, and having as much knowledge about this disorder makes it easier to notice it and diagnosing it earlier and this will help lower the risk of it becoming a sever and un-curable disorder.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


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Discover the Signs of Autism

Autism is considered to be a variety of mental retardation, or an occasion as a severe form of obsessive-compulsive illness. The first term of autism appeared around 1912 when psychiatrist Eugene Bleurel used the word to refer to patients who were self-absorbed and out of touch with the rest of the world. The term autism is derived from the Greek word autos, meaning self.

The term shows the communicative isolation that is the foremost feature of the illness. In fact the term referred to schizophrenic individuals who displayed catatonic behaviours and not to autistic patients as it is known today. The autistic syndrome may be described as mental retardation or mental illness. A mild form of autism identified as Asperger’s syndrome, an autism spectrum disorder and it was discovered by Dr. Hans Asperger.

A more general description of autism described by Dr. Leo Kanner was provided. Both doctors recognized the intense isolation experienced by their child patients was the central function of the condition. Mental retardation and obsessive-compulsive disorder is unquestioned today but researchers refined Drs. Kanner and Asperger’s work. Autism is thought as a family of related diseases which today are known as Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDDs).

Three other conditions round out the pervasive developmental disorder family Rett’s Disorder, Childhood Disintegrative Disorder and Asperger’s Disorder. Another diagnosis, Pervasive Developmental Disorder, Not Otherwise Specified (NOS) is used to indicate PDDs of unknown origin. All these developmental disorders are characterized by communication and social impairments. Different causes for the underlying impairments are different one from another; they differ by profiles and intensities of impairment typical of each condition.

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Autism spectrum disorders are synonymous with pervasive developmental disorders. A person can have a pervasive developmental disorder and not carry the diagnosis of autism in particular. Because of their insidious nature of autism spectrum of disorders are difficult to recognize. Parents are seldom motivated to assume the worst about their children’s atypical behaviour and symptoms until they become impossible to ignore. Most parents do not bring their children in for formal diagnosis until they are between 18 months and three years of age. As time goes by parents and physicians learn what to look for and more children are diagnosed at earlier ages.

Methods and techniques for identifying pervasive developmental disorders early continue to be refined. The preferred method for identifying autism and related pervasive developmental disorders the behavioral observation has been preferred. Children’s lack of eye contact and social reciprocity are recognized as the major causes of autism. A characteristic of autism and related disorders is the presence of the stereotyped repetitive movements. When they are concerned about a PDD like autism it can be difficult for parents to know what specific signs to look for. A list of warning signs and milestones all revolving around the crucial team of communication deficits.

Such circumstances should be concerned about his child if: the child does not: babble or coo by twelve months, use gestures to communicate and the child does not wave, grasp objects or point to objects by twelve months, say single words by the age of sixteen months and does not say two-word phrases on his or her own by 24 months, the child has a loss of any language or social skills at any age. Only a psychiatrist or psychologist observes the child’s behaviour and interviews the parents or guardians he may administer one or more formal tests designed to measure PDD-like behaviour and compare it to normal children behaviour so that the degree of the child’s impairments can be determined.

The doctor will review the test results and observation notes and make a diagnosis based on observable criteria.

It is important for a parent to observe a child’s behaviour and verify its mental health. This method will show if any case of autism appears and it is true also that a specialist should be consult.

More informations about autism symptoms or about autism symptoms checklist can be found by visiting http://www.autism-info-center.com/
More informations about autism symptoms or about autism symptoms checklist can be found by visiting http://www.autism-info-center.com/
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Autism Signs Baby – Signs That Your Baby Is Autistic

Autism Signs Baby

Several years ago, autism can only be recognized in children as early as 18 to 24 months of age. But today, after several studies and observations, we can now recognize the earlier signs of autism in babies. Signs include having an unusual eye contact, peculiarities of hearing, and social development and play.

The word “autism” is derived from the Greek word “autos” which means “self”, and it affects the way children view others in relation to themselves. This is why autistic children can be best described as “having their own world”. They want to play and be alone, do not want to be touched or hugged, and have problems interacting with others.

Autism is a pervasive disorder which affects multiple areas of functioning. ASD affects children differently – in their cognitive ability, in their IQ, in developing communications skills, in their relationship with others even with their own parents, and so many more.

Although there are still debates about the causes of autism, experts believe that the earlier autistic children receive treatment, the better the outcome is likely to be. Early intervention makes a huge difference in the battle against autism in babies. Signs of autism must be carefully observed and seek immediate help if you spot them in your child. Instead of playing the wait-and-see game, parents must be vigilant in observing the development of their child. This will greatly contribute in enhancing the quality of life of children. Autism Signs Baby

Researchers and experts are now claiming that they can recognize autism as young as 6 months old or even earlier in some cases. The good thing about this is that new and earlier treatment for autism can then be developed and it can make a huge difference in the child’s future.

Here are the red flags of autism in babies – signs that your baby is autistic:

Eye Contact – Having an unusual gaze or in making an eye contact is a very common sing of autism in babies. Signs of disinterest with other people and the environment can also be observed.

Hearing – Autistic babies respond less when called upon compared to normal developing babies. They are also not affected by any audible changes in the surroundings. Hence, most autistic babies are initially suspected of being deaf.

Social Development and Play – Autistic babies may show lack of interest in the types of play that other infants enjoy, even those which involve social interaction with the parents.

Because these early signs can vary in severity and symptoms, they may go unrecognized. Therefore, parents must be careful in observing the behavior of autism in babies. Signs of autism can also be a sign of other disorders.

Also, according to one research, a child who has an older brother or sister diagnosed with autism is more likely to be autistic as well. Parents may notice that their child’s physical development is different from others. Having a larger than the normal head circumference is said to be an indication of autism in babies. Signs of having unusual facial expressions and gestures can also be noted. Autism Signs Baby


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