Tag Archives: German Scientist

Question?: Pdd Nos Symptoms

Robert asks…

Can someone please explain Autism to me? My son never lost his memory or language before!?

My three year old is speech and lanuguage delayed. They are testing him for Autism.

admin answers:

“What is Autism? An Overview

Autism is a complex neurobiological disorder that typically lasts throughout a person’s lifetime. It is part of a group of disorders known as Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Today, 1 in 150 individuals is diagnosed with autism, making it more common than pediatric cancer, diabetes, and AIDS combined. It occurs in all racial, ethnic, and social groups and is four times more likely to strike boys than girls. Autism impairs a person’s ability to communicate and relate to others. It is also associated with rigid routines and repetitive behaviors, such as obsessively arranging objects or following very specific routines. Symptoms can range from very mild to quite severe.

Autism was first identified in 1943 by Dr. Leo Kanner of Johns Hopkins Hospital. At the same time, a German scientist, Dr. Hans Asperger, described a milder form of the disorder that is now known as Asperger Syndrome. These two disorders are listed in the DSM IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders) as two of the five developmental disorders that fall under the Autism Spectrum Disorders. The others are Rett Syndrome, PDD NOS (Pervasive Developmental Disorder), and Childhood Disintegrative Disorder. All of these disorders are characterized by varying degrees of impairment in communication skills and social abilities, and also by repetitive behaviors. For more discussion on the range of diagnoses that comprise Autism Spectrum Disorder, click here.

Autism Spectrum Disorders can usually be reliably diagnosed by age 3, although new research is pushing back the age of diagnosis to as early as 6 months. Parents are usually the first to notice unusual behaviors in their child or their child’s failure to reach appropriate developmental milestones. Some parents describe a child that seemed different from birth, while others describe a child who was developing normally and then lost skills. Pediatricians may initially dismiss signs of autism, thinking a child will “catch up,” and may advise parents to “wait and see.” New research shows that when parents suspect something is wrong with their child, they are usually correct. If you have concerns about your child’s development, don’t wait: speak to your pediatrician about getting your child screened for autism.

If your child is diagnosed with autism, early intervention is critical to gain maximum benefit from existing therapies. Although parents may have concerns about labeling a toddler as “autistic,” the earlier the diagnosis is made, the earlier interventions can begin. Currently, there are no effective means to prevent autism, no fully effective treatments, and no cure. Research indicates, however, that early intervention in an appropriate educational setting for at least two years during the preschool years can result in significant improvements for many young children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. As soon as autism is diagnosed, early intervention instruction should begin. Effective programs focus on developing communication, social, and cognitive skills.”

“Did you know…
1 in 150 children is diagnosed with autism
1 in 94 boys is on the autism spectrum
67 children are diagnosed per day
A new case is diagnosed almost every 20 minutes
More children will be diagnosed with autism this year than with AIDS, diabetes & cancer combined
Autism is the fastest-growing serious developmental disability in the U.S.
Autism costs the nation over $90 billion per year, a figure expected to double in the next decade
Autism receives less than 5% of the research funding of many less prevalent childhood diseases
Boys are four times more likely than girls to have autism
There is no medical detection or cure for autism”

Powered by Yahoo! Answers

Question?: Autism Symptoms Toddler Boys

Sandy asks…

What is Autism can some one tell me?

Please explain in your own words then give me links thanks!

admin answers:

Autism is a complex neurobiological disorder that typically lasts throughout a person’s lifetime. It is part of a group of disorders known as autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Today, 1 in 150 individuals is diagnosed with autism, making it more common than pediatric cancer, diabetes, and AIDS combined. It occurs in all racial, ethnic, and social groups and is four times more likely to strike boys than girls. Autism impairs a person’s ability to communicate and relate to others. It is also associated with rigid routines and repetitive behaviors, such as obsessively arranging objects or following very specific routines. Symptoms can range from very mild to quite severe.

Autism was first identified in 1943 by Dr. Leo Kanner of Johns Hopkins Hospital. At the same time, a German scientist, Dr. Hans Asperger, described a milder form of the disorder that is now known as Asperger Syndrome (read more). These two disorders are listed in the DSM IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders) as two of the five developmental disorders that fall under the autism spectrum disorders. The others are Rett Syndrome, PDD NOS (Pervasive Developmental Disorder), and Childhood Disintegrative Disorder. All of these disorders are characterized by varying degrees of impairment in communication skills and social abilities, and also by repetitive behaviors. For more discussion on the range of diagnoses that comprise autism spectrum disorder, click here.

Autism spectrum disorders can usually be reliably diagnosed by age 3, although new research is pushing back the age of diagnosis to as early as 6 months. Parents are usually the first to notice unusual behaviors in their child or their child’s failure to reach appropriate developmental milestones. Some parents describe a child that seemed different from birth, while others describe a child who was developing normally and then lost skills. Pediatricians may initially dismiss signs of autism, thinking a child will “catch up,” and may advise parents to “wait and see.” New research shows that when parents suspect something is wrong with their child, they are usually correct. If you have concerns about your child’s development, don’t wait: speak to your pediatrician about getting your child screened for autism.

If your child is diagnosed with autism, early intervention is critical to gain maximum benefit from existing therapies. Although parents may have concerns about labeling a toddler as “autistic,” the earlier the diagnosis is made, the earlier interventions can begin. Currently, there are no effective means to prevent autism, no fully effective treatments, and no cure. Research indicates, however, that early intervention in an appropriate educational setting for at least two years during the preschool years can result in significant improvements for many young children with autism spectrum disorders. As soon as autism is diagnosed, early intervention instruction should begin. Effective programs focus on developing communication, social, and cognitive skills.

Powered by Yahoo! Answers

Question?: Autism Symptoms Toddler Boys

Nancy asks…

what is autism some1 tell me cause its my project tell me smart person?

i need help

admin answers:

Autism speaks:
Autism is a complex neurobiological disorder that typically lasts throughout a person’s lifetime. It is part of a group of disorders known as Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Today, 1 in 150 individuals is diagnosed with autism, making it more common than pediatric cancer, diabetes, and AIDS combined. It occurs in all racial, ethnic, and social groups and is four times more likely to strike boys than girls. Autism impairs a person’s ability to communicate and relate to others. It is also associated with rigid routines and repetitive behaviors, such as obsessively arranging objects or following very specific routines. Symptoms can range from very mild to quite severe.

Autism was first identified in 1943 by Dr. Leo Kanner of Johns Hopkins Hospital. At the same time, a German scientist, Dr. Hans Asperger, described a milder form of the disorder that is now known as Asperger Syndrome (read more). These two disorders are listed in the DSM IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders) as two of the five developmental disorders that fall under the Autism Spectrum Disorders. The others are Rett Syndrome, PDD NOS (Pervasive Developmental Disorder), and Childhood Disintegrative Disorder. All of these disorders are characterized by varying degrees of impairment in communication skills and social abilities, and also by repetitive behaviors. For more discussion on the range of diagnoses that comprise Autism Spectrum Disorder, click here.

Autism Spectrum Disorders can usually be reliably diagnosed by age 3, although new research is pushing back the age of diagnosis to as early as 6 months. Parents are usually the first to notice unusual behaviors in their child or their child’s failure to reach appropriate developmental milestones. Some parents describe a child that seemed different from birth, while others describe a child who was developing normally and then lost skills. Pediatricians may initially dismiss signs of autism, thinking a child will “catch up,” and may advise parents to “wait and see.” New research shows that when parents suspect something is wrong with their child, they are usually correct. If you have concerns about your child’s development, don’t wait: speak to your pediatrician about getting your child screened for autism.

If your child is diagnosed with autism, early intervention is critical to gain maximum benefit from existing therapies. Although parents may have concerns about labeling a toddler as “autistic,” the earlier the diagnosis is made, the earlier interventions can begin. Currently, there are no effective means to prevent autism, no fully effective treatments, and no cure. Research indicates, however, that early intervention in an appropriate educational setting for at least two years during the preschool years can result in significant improvements for many young children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. As soon as autism is diagnosed, early intervention instruction should begin. Effective programs focus on developing communication, social, and cognitive skills.

Very long but it will help you with your project.

Powered by Yahoo! Answers

A New Approach to Treatment for Some Forms of Autism

 

What do we mean when we say autism is a ‘spectrum disorder?’

When the term, ‘spectrum disorder’ is used it means that there are a range of symptoms, which can be attributed to autism. Any one individual may display any combination of these symptoms, in differing degrees of severity. Therefore an individual at one end of the autistic spectrum may seem very different to an individual at the other end of the spectrum.

Who first discovered autism?

Autism was first recognised in the mid 1940’s by a psychiatrist called Leo Kanner. He described a group of children, whom he was treating, who presented with some very unusual symptoms such as; – atypical social development, irregular development of communication and language, and recurring / repetitive and obsessional behaviour with aversion to novelty and refusal to accept change. His first thoughts were that they were suffering some sort of childhood psychiatric disorder.

At around the same time that Kanner was grappling with the problems of these children, a German scientist, Hans Asperger was caring for a group of children whose behaviour also seemed irregular. Asperger suggested that these children were suffering from what he termed ‘autistic psychopathy.’ These children experienced remarkably similar symptoms to the children described by Kanner, with a single exception. – Their language development was normal! There is still an ongoing debate as to whether autism and Asperger’s syndrome are separable conditions, or whether Asperger’s syndrome is merely a mild form of autism.

What is the cause of autism?

In the 1960s and 1970s there arose a theory that autism was caused by abnormal family relationships. This led on to the ‘refrigerator mother’ theory, which claimed that autism in the child was caused by cold, emotionless mothers! (Bettleheim, 1967). However the weight of evidence quickly put this theory to bed as evidence was found to support the idea that the real cause was to be found in abnormalities in the brain. This evidence was quickly followed by findings, which clearly demonstrated that the EEG’s of children with autism were, in many cases, atypical and the fact that a large proportion of children also suffered from epilepsy.

From this time, autism has been looked upon as a disorder, which develops as a consequence of abnormal brain development. Recently, evidence has shown that in some cases, the abnormal brain development may be caused by specific genes.

However, we should not forget that genes can only express themselves if the appropriate environmental conditions exist for them to do so and so, we should not rule out additional, environmental causes for autism. We should not forget that autism can also be caused by brain-injury, that an insult to the brain can produce the same effects as can abnormal development of the brain, which may have been caused by genetic and other environmental factors. I have seen too many children who have suffered oxygen starvation at birth, who have gone on to display symptoms of autism. So, it is my view that autism can also be caused by brain-injury.

There are also other possibilities, which can ultimately produce the type of brain dysfunction, which we recognise as autism. There is a great deal of research being carried out at the moment in the area of ‘oxidative stress’ and methylation and it’s effects upon the integrity of neural networks. There is also the debate surrounding mercury levels in vaccines, which is as of yet, unresolved.

The fact is that ‘many roads lead to Rome.’ – There are likely to be several factors both genetic and environmental, which can ultimately lead to the type of brain dysfunction, which we call autism.

 

So, how do we recognise autism?

On a descriptive level, autism involves a dysfunction of the brain’s systems, which control communication, socialisation, imagination and sensory perception. My theory is that it is the distortions of sensory perception, which are so characteristic of autism, which exacerbates many (but not all) of the other difficulties. Imagine a child suffering from autism who suffers distortions of sensory perception. For instance, the child who suffers distortions of visual perception, might find situations which require eye -contact to be exceptionally threatening, or on the other end of the scale might become obsessive about specific visual stimuli. The child who suffers distortions of tactile perception, might at one end of the spectrum find any situation which requires physical contact to be terrifying, whilst at the other end of the spectrum, they might be a ‘sensation seeker’ to the point of becoming self -injurious. The child who suffers distortions of auditory perception might at one end of the spectrum, be terrified of sounds of a certain pitch or intensity, whereas at the other end of the spectrum, they might actively seek out, or become obsessive about certain sounds.

 

Treatment

The question is, what can we do to help redress these distortions of sensory perception. Well, we believe we can learn from the newborn baby. When baby is born, he sleeps for most of the time, only spending short periods of time interacting with this new environment in which he finds himself; – a new environment which bombards his senses with new sights, noises and smells. So he retreats into the safe, calm environment of sleep, which provides the sensory safe haven which up until recently was the sanctuary of the womb. Very gradually, as baby adjusts his sensory system to his new environment, he spends more and more time in the waking world, interacting and learning to communicate, – but he adjusts very gradually!

There is possibly a neurological explanation for this. There are structures within the brain, which act to ‘tune’ sensory attention. These three structures, which allow us to tune our attention are structures, which enables us to ‘tune out’ background interference when we wish to selectively attend to something in particular. They also enables us to ‘tune in’ to another stimulus when we are attending to something completely different. They are the same mechanisms of the brain, which allows us to listen to what our friend is saying to us, even when we are standing in the midst of heavy traffic on a busy road. It is these mechanisms that allow us, even though we are in conversation in a crowded room, to hear our name being spoken by someone else across that room. It is these mechanisms, which allow a mother to sleep though various loud, night-time noises such as her husband snoring, or an aeroplane passing overhead and yet the instant her new baby stirs, she is woken. It is a remarkable feature of the human brain and it is the responsibility of three structures operating cooperatively; – these are the ascending reticular activating formation, the thalamus and the limbic system.

Having made such a bold claim, allow me to furnish you with the evidence to support it. The three structures just mentioned receive sensory information from the sense organs and relay the information to specific areas of the cortex. The thalamus in particular is responsible for controlling the general excitability of the cortex (whether that excitability tunes the cortex up to be overexcited, tunes it down to be under excited, or tunes it inwardly to selectively attend to it’s own internal sensory world.) (Carlson, 2007). The performance of these neurological structures, or in the case of our children, their distorted performance seems to be at the root of the sensory problems faced not only by newborn babies, but the sensory difficulties our children face and yes, as the newborn shows, their performance CAN be influenced, – they can be re-tuned.

I believe the sensory system of some children with autism is experiencing similar difficulties to that of a newborn, – at one end of the autistic spectrum, the cortex is being over-excited by these structures and the person is overwhelmed and has difficulty accommodating the mass of sensory stimulation within the environment. At the other end of the autistic spectrum, the cortex is being under-excited and the person has trouble in perceiving sensory stimulation from the environment. The question is; – How do we facilitate the re-tuning of this neurological system in individuals who have autism

The newborn retreats into sleep, a self imposed dampening of incoming sensory information. Whilst the child with autism does not do this, many children with autism attempt to withdraw from their environment because they find it so threatening.

We believe at Snowdrop that for the child at the end of the autistic spectrum who is suffering an amplification of sensory stimulation, we should create a setting where he can retreat from a world, which is overwhelming his immature sensory system. This ‘adapted environment,’ which should be as free as possible from all visual, auditory, tactile and olfactory stimulation will serve as a milieu where his sensory system can re-tune itself. Of course it may just be a single sense like vision, or hearing, or tactility, or any combination of senses, which are causing the difficulties and the environment may be adapted appropriately. The child suffering these difficulties will usually welcome this adapted environment, which is in effect a ‘safe haven’ for his immature sensory system. He should be given free access to, or placed within the adapted environment as needed and you will notice hopefully that he will relax and begin to enjoy being within its safe confines, where there are no sensory surprises.

This procedure should be continued for as long as necessary, – for several weeks or months. Indeed, some children might always need periods of time within the ‘safe haven.’ As the child begins to accept and be at ease in his safe haven, stimulation in whatever sensory modality is causing the difficulties, should begin to be introduced at a very low level, so low in fact that it is hardly noticeable. If the child tolerates this, then it can be used more frequently until it becomes an accepted part of the sensory environment. If the child reacts negatively in any way, then the stimulus is withdrawn and reintroduced at a later date. In this way, we can very gradually begin to build the level of tolerance, which the child has towards the stimulus.

For the child at the other end of the autistic spectrum, the child whose sensory attentional system is not exciting the cortex enough, with the consequence that he is not noticing enough of the stimulation in his sensory environment, the approach needs to be the exact opposite. These are the children who we see producing self-stimulatory behaviour. I believe that this behaviour is an attempt by the nervous system to provide itself with what it needs from the environment, – a sensory message of greater intensity! We see many children with autism ‘flapping’ their hands in front of their eyes, or becoming visually obsessed by certain toys, movements, colours etc. I propose that this is a reaction by the nervous system to attempt to increase the intensity, frequency and duration of the sensory stimulus due to a problem with perceiving visual stimuli from the environment.

Of course, children with autism display a far greater range of difficulties than a theory, focused upon a malfunctioning sensory – attentional system could explain. I am not attempting to claim that sensory problems on their own are an adequate explanation for every facet of autism, – that would be ridiculous! This is merely a possible explanation of a range of issues experienced by some children who have autism, which could be produced or exacerbated by the child suffering distortions of sensory perception. For instance, the following symptoms within the autistic spectrum could possibly be explained at the sensory level.

Failure to make eye contact.

Difficulty in sharing attention with anyone.

Avoiding interaction with others

Avoiding physical contact

Seeming disconnected from the environment.

Appearing not to notice anything visually.

Visual distraction, as though the child is looking at something which you cannot see.

Visual obsession with particular features of the environment.

Inability to ‘switch’ visual attention from one feature of the environment to another.

General discomfort with the visual environment.

Appearing not to hear anything.

Auditory distraction, as though listening to something which you cannot hear.

Auditory obsession with particular sounds within the environment.

Inability to ‘switch’ auditory attention from one sound within the environment to another.

Inability to ‘tune out’ extraneous sounds in the environment.

General discomfort with the auditory environment.

Appearing not to feel much sensation.

Appearing to bee distracted by tactile stimuli of which you are not aware.

Obsession with particular tactile sensations within the environment.

Appears unable to ‘switch’ tactile attention from one sensation to another.

General discomfort with the tactile environment.

Difficulty in communicating with others.

 

 

 

We believe at Snowdrop, that our sensory re-tuning environments offer the best chance for children to overcome such distortions of sensory perception.

 


Article Source

Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders – Detecting Autistic Spectrum Disorders in an Early Stage is of Great Importance

Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders

It was not until the mid 20th century that the world became aware that autistic spectrum disorders existed. In 1943, Dr. Leo Kanner started up to news story a group that included 11 children and labeled the disorder that affected them as making how we know today as autism. At the same time, Dr. Hans Asperger, a German scientist, was describing a milder disorder within the same spectrum celebrated as Asperger syndrome. Today, we know it to be one of five developmental disorders that are often referred to as the autism spectrum disorders. Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders

Each illness in the autism spectrum will vary in degrees, with regard to an individual’s impairment. The impairments include problems with communication skills, the inability to socially interact with others and behavior patterns that are both restrictive and repetitive. The parents of a child are normally the first to notice the signs of an autistic spectrum disorder. These disorders can actually rear their heads before the child is even three years of age. Children who have autism spectrum disorders do not act like other children. They may be withdrawn socially and may stare off into space and not respond when their name is called.

However, there are instances of the disorder not showing up until later, such as when a child, who once acted as a normal toddler, suddenly begins to show signs. Disorders may range from the milder form in the autism spectrum, normally referred to as Asperger syndrome, to a more severe form known as an autistic disorder. There is also high functioning autism, which shows symptoms very close to Asperger syndrome. If a child seems to have symptoms of autism, either the mild or the more sever form, yet does not fall under a certain criteria for one of these disorders, then they are normally diagnosed with a pervasive developmental disorder. Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders

While it may not be a concern if a child is showing signs of delayed development, they should be evaluated by a doctor. It is important to let your physician know if you see any developmental delays in your child. If they do indeed have one of the disorders within the autistic spectrum, then there are steps that can be taken to help the child increase their development and also help the family to deal with the disorder.

Even after an autism spectrum disorder is found, individuals can, in many cases learn to be functioning individuals; however, if the disorder is disregarded and nothing is done, then there is a possibility of severe delays in both communication and social skills. It is always important when any developmental delays seem apparent that the child’s physician be consulted. Don’t let your child suffer anymore! Lead your child out of his world through Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders program now!

Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders is a proven Autism Solution for your Child.

Try The Program and change child’s life forever!
Article Source

Autism Nimh – Autism, Hope and Positive Intervention

Autism Nimh

Autism is a neurological circumstances characterized by impairments in social, communicative and behavioral development. It is three times as common, such as ADHD, in boys. The grade of severity varies and the challenge of autism is worldwide in scope. Autism Nimh

It has carried on described as a “public health concern.” In 1943 Dr. Leo Kanner of the Johns Hopkins Hospital studied a group of 11 children and introduced the label early infantile autism. A German scientist, about the same time, labeled a milder form of the disorder which became known as Asperger syndrome.

These are two the most common of the disorders known as pervasive developmental disorders (PDD), or as autism spectrum disorders. The five PDD disorders are autism, Asperger syndrome, Rett Syndrome, Childhood Disintegrative Disorder (the latter two being less common that the first two). Also, a 5th is labeled as PDD-NOS, that is pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified, a disorder that does not meet the specific criteria for the other commonly diagnosed disorders.

At times it takes discernment on the part of parents and treatment teams, psychologists and professionals in determining whether a child has ADHD, autism, or some other disorder. Experiences Recently the girlfriend of actor Jim Carrey, Jenny McCarthy, released teh book “Louder Than Words: A Mother’s Journey in Healing Autism,” about her son, Evan, and his progress in coming out of autism, as well as about Carey’s attentiveness to him and the role that she felt that had in his partial recovery. Evan is 5-years-old (November 2007) Evan’s experience here. Autism Nimh

Stories such as this do give a ray of hope to parents whose children are autistic and should encourage them to take whatever postitives steps they can to work with their children to see what might be of help. For some children, full recovery might not be possible, for others, that might be hope for a better life through therapy and lifestyle adjustments.

A boy named Eric was diagnosed with autism. He couldn’t make eye contact and his parents were faced with a choice of using medication or behavioral therapy. After a short but not good experience with medication, they found that behavioral therapy was effective in helping Eric to open up. Within a short time he was making eye contact and engaging in productive educational activities. His therapist Eve Band, and Owning Mills psychologist, states concerning autism, that many autistic children are “highly visual.” Autism Nimh

In teaching or working with autistic children, she states, “when you support something verbal with something visual that he creates, it helps him rework, process and remember the information.” There are specialized schools within the public school system for autistic children. Such classes consist of few students with a high ratio of teachers and students. Don’t let your child suffer anymore! Lead your child out of his world through Autism Nimh program now!

Autism Spectrum Dsm IV is a proven Autism Solution for your Child.

Try The Program and change child’s life forever!
Article Source