Tag Archives: Genetic Factors

Question?: Pdd Nos Symptoms

Thomas asks…

Could my little sister have a mild form of autism?Any advice or tips?

My little sister is 3 years old and screams alot for stupid little things that may happen.Some of her behavior makes me concerned that she may have a mild form of autism.She’s very smart for her age though.

admin answers:

Most children with autism are VERY smart for their age and have a HIGH physical abilities! My four year old son is autistic. I would like to also add after reading some of the other answers just now that there ARE different levels of autism. Some are higher functioning than others, and MR does NOT always go hand in hand with autism.

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Autism Spectrum Disorders

Autism Spectrum Disorders, or ASD, are a group of developmental disabilities characterized by abnormal or impaired development in social interaction and communication and the presence of repetitive behaviors or restricted interests. Some professionals may use the term Pervasive Developmental Disorders, or PDD, instead of ASD.

Incidence
ASD or PDD occurs 4 to 5 times more often in boys than in girls. Symptoms are present before the age of three, although diagnosis may occur later. ASD affects individuals from all racial, ethnic, and social backgrounds.

Cause
Nobody knows what causes ASD. Scientists believe that there are chemical and biological differences in how the brain functions, and there may be genetic factors involved. Parents do not cause autism spectrum disorders. No factors in a child’s experience or in parenting styles are responsible for ASD.

Prognosis
ASD is a lifelong disability, but with intensive and early intervention, individuals with ASD can and do make excellent progress and improve their quality of life. While there is no known cure for ASD, there are many intervention strategies designed to address the problems associated with ASD.

Characteristics
Although difficulties in social interaction, communication, and restricted or repetitive behavior are general characteristics of Autism Spectrum Disorders, the specific diagnoses are distinguished by the types, numbers, and severity of symptoms.
Communication
Some children develop speech, and then regress, or lose communication skills. Others echo or repeat what they hear. Many individuals with ASD do learn to talk, while others rely on technology, sign, or pictures to communicate. However, conversational skills, gestures, and non-verbal communication strategies remain difficult for most individuals with ASD.
Social Interaction
Persons with ASD often have difficulty interacting with others, learning to play with peers, and developing friendships, even though some may be very interested in having friends. They often have difficulty using and understanding eye contact, facial expressions, and social rules. They can be unaware of the interests and perspectives of other people, and may, therefore, become socially isolated and misunderstood.
Interests and Behavior
Some persons with autism may engage in repetitive behavior, like switching a light on and off, spinning, or rocking. Some may play with toys in an unusual manner, like lining toy cars up instead of pretending to drive them. They may insist on doing the same thing in the same way, and may have difficulty with changes to their surroundings or routines. Individuals with ASD also have difficulty processing information from their senses. For example, they may dislike the feel of certain fabrics or the texture of certain foods. Some individuals are very active and have difficulty with sleep. Some engage in challenging behavior, such as aggression, self-injury, or severe withdrawal.

Types
Neither ASD nor PDD are specific diagnoses. The specific ASD/PDD diagnoses are: Autism, Asperger Syndrome (AS), Rett’s Disorder, Childhood Disintegrative Disorder, and Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS). These specific diagnoses are considered “Spectrum disorders” because the severity of impairment varies from person to person and can change over time as a result of intervention. Because it is sometimes difficult to pinpoint the exact diagnosis, some professionals may refer to individuals as being “on the spectrum”. For example, one child with ASD may struggle to learn to use words to communicate while another may be capable of carrying on a long conversation, but will only care to talk about certain topics. Many show a strong aptitude in one area, while remaining weak in others.
Autism
Autism is the most well-known form of ASD. Often the most noteworthy piece of this diagnosis is a sever impairment in social skills, People with autism may prefer to play or work alone, and seek social interaction only as needed. Autism can occur with or without mental retardation or other health problems, such as seizure disorders. The first signs of autism usually are recognized during the second year of life, and may include odd, delayed, or absent speech development.
Asperger Syndrome
Asperger Syndrome (AS) is marked by significant difficulties in social interaction but in contrast to autism, there are no obvious delays in the development of speech. However, individuals often have more subtle problems with language and non-verbal communication. Persons with AS are likely to have average to above average intelligence, yet may have difficulty functioning in traditional school and work environments. A unique characteristic that many AS individuals show is an intense interest in one or two subjects to the exclusion of others. When speaking, these individuals tend to be formal, and they may not be skilled at conversational turn taking. Individuals with AS are typically diagnosed later than individuals with autism.
PDD-NOS
PDD-NOS is an abbreviation for Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified. The diagnosis of PDD-NOS is usually given to an individual who does not meet the exact diagnostic criteria for any of the other diagnoses in ASD, yet clearly shows unusual development in social interaction, communication skills or interests, and behavior. Often, individuals with PDD-NOS diagnosis have better social or communication skills than individuals diagnosed with autism and may have fewer problems with repetitive behaviors or restricted interests.

Taken from CARD’s “A Map for Your Journey”

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“SPEAK UP LOUD FOR THOSE WHO CANNOT”
Today 80% of the Autism population is under 18.

In 2005, The Center For Disease Control announces that autism is the fastest growing serious developmental disability in the United States. In 2005 estimated that 1.77 million Americans are affected by autism. In real terms the estimated autistic population of 1 million plus cases in 2004 could reach 5 to 25 million by 2015. In 1994 the autism rate was rare and was estimated to be 1 in 10,000. In 2004 the autism epidemic revised rate was estimated to be 1 in 200. In 2005 the autism epidemic revised rate is now estimated to be 1 in 166 by the Center For Disease Control. In 2015 the statistics indicate the estimated rate could be as high as 1 in 7, if this 1994 to 2004 exponential growth rate continues at its present rate.

Therefore no matter who you are or where you live, Democrat or Republican, if these statistics of the past carry forward through the next decade; your family may be devastated by autism in the next decade… The current autism epidemic could become the most devastating epidemic in history, with 10-15% of the population afflicted in the next decade that need long term care. Many experts associate a genetic predisposition triggered be high levels of mercury in the environment together as the cause of Autism.

The latest study from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reports that 1 in 12 American women of childbearing age has mercury levels in her blood above the levels considered safe for the developing fetus. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency experts have estimated that 630,000 infants are born every year with unsafe levels of mercury.

These higher mercury levels in the mothers body can be passed on during pregnancy. These 1 in 12 mothers could be unknowingly predisposing their unborn child to become autistic due to high levels of mercury passed on from the mother during pregnancy. It is now recommended that pregnant women not eat tuna fish, which is known to be high in mercury. Even small trace amounts of Mercury are known to be harmful to developing fetuses and never break down in the body. Mercury vapors can remain airborne for a year. These vapors can therefore travel around the world and we could be accumulating mercury in our bodies by inhaling them that over time.

According to a recent study of mercury emissions throughout the world. Coal fueled power plants in the U.S. Emit 48 tons of toxic mercury vapors into the air per year. China emits 1000 tons of toxic mercury vapors per year. The toxicity buildup of breathing these vapors along with mercury fillings over a period of decades within our bodies, may be the cause of the high levels mercury in women of childbearing age. Vaccines with mercury further spike an already high level of mercury passed on from the mother during pregnancy at a critical time in the infants development Vaccines with mercury may be the trigger that causes autism in children with a genetic predisposition for autism and an already high level of mercury passed on from the mother.

Acute mercury poisoning and Autism share many similar symptoms. Women who are pregnant or thinking about getting pregnant should now consider have their blood tested for elevated levels of mercury. We must ask the government to make Autism Awareness and prevention a national priority. Those who are saying that the numbers were under represented in the past are burying their heads in the sand.

“Houston, we have a problem”, we are going to have the next generation devastated by this disease if left unchecked at its present growth rate. This epidemic must quickly become the major health initiative of our time just as the search for the cure for aids has. Otherwise the effects on the next generation, families, businesses and the economy will be catastrophic. We can no longer wait for this “simmering modern day plague of the 21st century” to arrive at our doorstep in the form of a lost generation of innocent, helpless, unsuspecting children that through no fault of their own will need a lifetime of care.

Autism Awareness is Key

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Question?: Treatment For Autism 2012

Sandy asks…

Can someone help me edit my grammar? please!?

The opposite side of the spectrum disorder is the severe autism. Usually this side of the spectrum is endangering the patient. In the book called, “Caring For The Vulnerable”, Chesnay and Anderson points out that “problematic emotional reactions and behaviors such as aggression and self-injury are common in older individuals with autism spectrum disorder.” As I have mentioned before, children with autism tends to focus on themselves by doing certain things that only interest them. An example of this behavior is when a six years old boy began biting his arms until they bled. Patients who are diagnosed with autism usually have insensitivity to pain or temperature. In addition, people who are suffering from severe autism have a sensory dysfunction where they have too much or less sensitive to light, touch, taste, or smell. Some children who interact with these strong stimuli usually react by shouting, or pulling their hair but these behaviors usually varies among others.

Causes
Back then there was a common belief that parenting skills or vaccination was the cause of autism. Fortunately, these arguments are proven wrong due to many research and studies being done on this medical condition. However, due to its complexity of autism, many scientists are still unsure of what is the main cause of this disorder. This is due to the fact that there are multiple factors that are involve such as the environment, biology, and genetic factors in order to determine your risk of having autism. Most scientists do agree that genes such as containing “fragile X syndrome, tuberous sclerosis, down syndrome or other chromosomal disorders (Pathways In Autism, 2012).” are one of the risk factors that can make a person more likely to develop autism. In addition, harmful drugs such as prescription thalidomide and valprocid taken during pregnancy have been linked with a higher risk of autism.

Treatment
For now there are no cure for autism but to help minimize the symptoms. First we need early intervention by doing an assessment on a child whether or not he or she is suffering from autism. Once a patient is diagnosed, treatment is best when we focus on a family centered care because they will be the one who would mainly support and address the problem when they are at home. Parents definitely need to learn how to connect bonds to their child by finding a way to adjust to his or her own pace. For example, a child who is playing with his action figures can socially interact with others when he is being imitated. Since the child only sees his behavior in his own world, he will also take notice of his surrounding when he finds a common interest with other people. This kind of treatment is a continuation process till the child has reach the external environment of being able to socially interact independently.

admin answers:

Is severe autism not the severe.
A six year old boy not six years old.

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Question?: Asperger Syndrome Causes

Nancy asks…

What causes Asperger Syndrome? is it developed or are you born with it? Can females have Asperger Syndrome too?

Is Asperger Syndrome hereditary? or is it developed? or is it both? I know it’s mostly males that have Asperger Syndrome, but someone told me yesterday, who is Bipolar, and he says that no females have Asperger Syndrome, is he right about that? I want serious answers please.

admin answers:

Both males and females can have Asperger’s Syndrome. The causes remain elusive. Both environmental and genetic factors are hypothesized to play a role in its development.

~M~

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Signs and Symptoms of Autism

Autism is becoming more and more prevalent in our children. This disease is known for abnormal biology and chemistry in the brain. No one knows why but males are affected 3 to 4 times more than females.

What Causes Autism?
No one knows the exact cause of this disorder. It is thought that environmental factors may be a contributing cause which includes diet. More and more chemicals are being used to produce our food. Genetic factors play a role as studies have shown that identical twins are more likely to both have autism whereas fraternal twins may only have one child with it. Many parents think that vaccinations are the cause of autism although this is not proved. It is thought that due to the high levels of mercury in multi-dosage vaccinations is a cause to not only autism but ADHD as well. One of the problems with this theory is that third world country children are born with this disorder and they are not vaccinated. It is thought that the child with autism cannot properly use vitamins and minerals, therefore autism occurs.

Signs and Symptoms
If you are a new parent you will probably see signs and symptoms in your child compared to other children if he or she has this disorder. For example, if you get together with parents in your neighborhood to enjoy a play-group for socializing, you may notice that your child does not act or do the same things that the other children do. Your child probably has a difficult time interacting with the other kids. Your child may line up his or her toys. He or she may constantly stack toys. Repetitiveness is a huge indicator of autism. When your child’s schedule or normalcy changes he or she will most likely become very upset. Your child may not have as large of vocabulary as other children. If he or she does have a large vocabulary you may notice that he/she can recite a TV show verbatim over and over. Your child may shake his/her hands in a flapping motion quite often. Many children with this disorder do not make eye contact at all or very little. By the age of eighteen months you will be able to notice the signs and symptoms. Your family physician can help diagnose if your child is autistic.

As with any disorder every symptoms may not show up in your child’s behavior. Depending on the severity of your child’s autism will depend on his or her abilities and symptoms.

How Can You Help?
If you are knowledgeable in this disorder you can help educate others by attending meetings for support groups, heading up fundraisers or supporting them and making others more aware by wearing a high quality made silicone wristband.

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Half Siblings Provide Genetic Clues To Autism

Main Category: Autism
Also Included In: Genetics
Article Date: 19 Apr 2012 – 1:00 PDT

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When a child has autism, siblings are also at risk for the disorder. New research from Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis shows that the genetic reach of the disorder often extends to half siblings as well.

On the surface, the finding may not be surprising – half siblings share about 25 percent of their genes. But the discovery is giving scientists new clues to how autism is inherited.

The study is published online in the journal Molecular Psychiatry.

According to principal investigator John N. Constantino, MD, the new research adds to recent evidence that even though autism is far more common in males, females still can inherit and pass along genetic risk for autism.

“We found that autism risk for half siblings is about half of what it is for full siblings,” he says. “Most of the half siblings we studied had the same mothers. Given that half of the risk of transmission was lost and half was preserved among those maternal half siblings, mothers and fathers appear to be transmitting risk equally in families in which autism recurs.”

Constantino, the Blanche F. Ittleson Professor of Psychiatry and Pediatrics and director of the William Greenleaf Eliot Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry at Washington University and psychiatrist-in-chief at St. Louis Children’s Hospital, says the findings also suggest that in many families, the transmission of autism is the result of the effects of many genes – not just one – with each contributing a small proportion of risk.

Prior estimates of the extent to which autism is influenced by genetic factors are derived from studies of identical and fraternal twins where one, or both, are affected by the disorder. Since identical twins share 100 percent of their genes, and fraternal twins share 50 percent, inherited conditions tend to be twice as common in an identical twin pair compared to a fraternal twin pair. But twin studies of autism are too small to give precise estimates about how the disorder is inherited.

“The largest studies have included less than 300 clinically affected twin pairs,” Constantino says. “And they include girls, boys and mixed twin pairs, which complicates the testing of models of inheritance in autism because the disorder is much more common in boys than girls.”

Other studies have focused on siblings of children with autism, looking at how much more common autism recurrence is in siblings than the general population. But to derive more information on genetic structure from their family studies, Constantino’s group looked at autism recurrence in half siblings and compared it to that in full siblings.

The researchers studied over 5,000 families in which there was a child with autism and at least one additional sibling – the families were enrolled in a national volunteer, Internet-based family registry for autism, the Interactive Autism Network (IAN). Among those families, 619 included at least one maternal half-sibling. The researchers focused on maternal half-siblings rather than paternal half siblings because these children were more likely to live full-time with their biological mothers and to share the same environmental influences between the time they were born and the age of two, the time at which the onset of autistic syndromes occur. They compared autism recurrence among the 619 maternal half siblings to the rate among 4,832 full siblings.

In an attempt to replicate their findings, the researchers also looked at a group of local St. Louis families in which maternal half siblings also were known to have been raised in the same household.

After analyzing both sets of families, the researchers found that 10 percent to 11 percent of full siblings had been diagnosed with autism, compared to 5 percent to 7 percent of half siblings.

“If transmission of autism risk was occurring equally from unaffected mothers and fathers, you would predict that maternal half siblings’ risk of autism would be about half of what we saw in full siblings,” Constantino says. “And that’s exactly what we found.”

Current statistics from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimate that about one in 110 children in the United States is somewhere on the autism spectrum. Constantino says that according to the new findings, more than 60 percent of those cases of autism are likely to be inherited on the basis of genetic variations inherited from unaffected mothers and fathers.

“In 15 to 20 percent of children with autism, it appears that genetic problems aren’t inherited, rather that genes become altered in sperm cells, egg cells or in the developing embryo,” he says. “The recent discovery of these kinds of abnormalities have raised questions about the interpretation of twin studies and the extent to which autism is inherited. The current study, however, supports inheritance as a central cause for a majority of autistic syndromes and encourages a new focus on the mechanisms by which genetic susceptibility to autism can be silenced in some individuals, especially females who typically exhibit symptoms of autism at only one third of the rate seen in males.”

Article adapted by Medical News Today from original press release. Click ‘references’ tab above for source.
Visit our autism section for the latest news on this subject. Constantino JN, Todorov A, Hilton C, Law P, Zhang Y, Molloy E, Fitzgerald R, Geschwind D, Autism recurrence in half siblings: strong support for genetic mechanisms of transmission in ASD. Molecular Psychiatry, vol. 17 (published online). doi: 10.1038/mp.2012.9
Funding for this research comes from the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development and the National Institute of Mental Health of the National Institutes of Health (NIH).
Washington University in St. Louis Please use one of the following formats to cite this article in your essay, paper or report:

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‘Half Siblings Provide Genetic Clues To Autism’

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Autism Linked To Immune System Problems, Further Evidence Found

Editor’s Choice
Main Category: Autism
Also Included In: Immune System / Vaccines;  Allergy
Article Date: 19 Apr 2012 – 9:00 PDT

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According to a study in the April 2012 International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience, the plasma of children with autism disorder (AD) had significantly lower levels of various cytokines, compared with that of unrelated healthy siblings from other families, who had family members with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Cytokines are small proteins released by cells of the immune system that act as intercellular mediators and communicators between cells.

Researchers of the University of Kansas Medical Center analyzed 29 cytokine levels and discovered abnormal cytokine levels in five cells related to the T-helper cell immune system. They found three abnormal levels in the production of blood cells (hematopoiesis), which could potentially affect the production of antibodies that are needed in order to have a normally functioning immune system.

Merlin G. Butler, a professor of psychiatry at the KU Medical Center, said that the immune system and genetic factors are both affected in the biological basis for autism.

He continues:

“Our study further supports a disturbed immune system in children with classic autism that may be related to genetic factors as cytokine proteins are coded by genes distributed among the human chromosomes.”

He adds that studies in families with autism have discovered that in specific genes, involved with brain development and function, scientists found a significant contribution of genetics that included deletions and duplications of chromosomes and mutations or variants.

Butler explains:

“The importance of identifying early immunological disturbances that may contribute to autism has implications for identifying risk factors, diagnosis and possibly intervention as cytokines may play a role in the function of the developing brain.”

In one of the largest studies of its type to-date, the researchers examined the plasma of 99 AD children, aged between 5 and 10 years, and the plasma of 40 unrelated healthy siblings without AD, under the same clinical assessments, specimen processing and laboratory conditions. The healthy siblings were matched in terms of age and gender. According to the researchers, the male-to-female ratio was closely matched to that of the ASD population, and they note that five cytokines had gender-based differences.

Given that the study is one of only a few that utilizes nanoparticle technology to analyze cytokine patterns from peripheral blood in ASD children, which only needs very small quantities of plasma for analysis and uses standardized kits for cytokine assay, Butler underlines that this approach should also enable other scientists to examine findings of disturbed cytokines in ASD.

He concludes that this research is moving towards linking the genes encoding immune-related proteins and cytokines to ASD, along with identifying the sequence of the events during critical periods of brain and neurological development, which could mean an early recognition, diagnosis and potential therapy for ASD.

Written By Petra Rattue
Copyright: Medical News Today
Not to be reproduced without permission of Medical News Today

Visit our autism section for the latest news on this subject. “Plasma cytokine levels in children with autistic disorder and unrelated siblings”
A.M. Manzardo, R. Henkhaus, S. Dhillon, and M.G. Butler
International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience, April 2012, doi: 10.1016/j.ijdevneu.2011.12.003 Please use one of the following formats to cite this article in your essay, paper or report:

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Petra Rattue. “Autism Linked To Immune System Problems, Further Evidence Found.” Medical News Today. MediLexicon, Intl., 19 Apr. 2012. Web.
22 Apr. 2012. APA

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posted by WillDav on 19 Apr 2012 at 11:04 am

I’ve researched the pathogenesis of non-communicable diseases, including autism, for almost 30 years. Most are being caused by chronic, aberrant activation of an immune system ‘master molecule’, called NF-kB, and two research groups have recently confirmed that NF-kB is aberrantly activated in the brains of autistic infants.

Many genetic, environmental and lifestyle factors can contribute to such aberrant NF-kB activation, including exposure to environmental chemicals. In the case of autism, my research concludes that pre-natal exposure to environmental chemicals which disrupt the functioning of the GABA(A) receptor are a factor in the increasing incidence of the disease.

These chemicals include organophosphate, organochlorine and pyrethroid insecticides, phthalates, methyl mercury, bisphenol A and, perhaps most important, folic acid. There are probably many more. More information here:

nfkbdiseases.wordpress.com

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posted by MikeWag on 20 Apr 2012 at 2:08 pm

WillDav, Have you looked at the drug Auranofin (oral gold salt) as a potential treatment for the situation you describe above. I’ve been researching it for other reasons which I feel are related to autism/inflammation but from my research I found that;

“NF-kappa B is a transcription factor implicated in the expression of many inflammatory genes. NF-kappa B is activated by signal-induced phosphorylation and subsequent degradation of inhibitory I kappa B (inhibitory protein that dissociates from NF-kappa B) proteins, and a multisubunit I kappa B kinase (IKK) has been identified previously. A lipophilic gold compound, auranofin, suppressed the LPS-induced increase of nuclear kappa B-binding activity, degradation of I kappa B proteins, and IKK activation. Auranofin also blocked IKK activation induced by TNF alpha and PMA/ionomycin, suggesting that the target of auranofin action is common among these diverse signal pathways. Two catalytic subunits of IKK complex, IKK alpha and IKK beta, were both inhibited by this thiol-modifying agent, suggesting the presence of a cysteine sulfhydryl group in these subunits, which is critical for enzyme activity. The antiinflammatory activity of gold compounds may depend on modification of this thiol group by Auranofin.”

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posted by Roderick Young on 21 Apr 2012 at 6:28 am

Interesting article…but did the immune problem come first, or the autism? This could just be evidence of the effects of autism on the immune system? Stress, certainly caused in those affected by autism, has been shown to erode just these functional aspects of the immune system.

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‘Autism Linked To Immune System Problems, Further Evidence Found’

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The Relationship Between Autism and Antidepressants

Autism is a disorder that affects a child’s ability to communicate and interact with other people. The long list of proposed autism causes includes genetic and environmental factors. Some recent studies also show a link between autism and antidepressants.

What are the signs of autism?
Autism symptoms often start showing when a child is around six months old. They become more apparent at the age of 2-3, and continue up to adulthood. Autism has three general symptoms, all of which need to be present for a child to be called autistic.

– Impaired social interaction-Children with autism do not have the basic social instincts many people take for granted. Autistic children do not respond to their own names as often as normal children would, and rarely make eye contact with those speaking to them. They also have difficulty expressing themselves with hand gestures, such as pointing.

– Impaired communication-Most autistic children have difficulty developing enough speaking skills to communicate. Children who babble or speak in patterns completely different from their caregivers are most likely autistic. As they grow older, autistic children usually repeat others’ words instead of speaking on their own.

– Repetitive behavior -Autistic children display repetitive or restricted behaviors. These include stereotypy, or repeated movements and gestures; compulsive behavior, such as arranging objects in lines or stacks; and ritualistic behavior, or daily repetition of the exact same activities.

What causes autism?

Autism is a complex disorder, and most studies on it are incomplete. There are several proposed theories regarding autism causes. Genetic factors are the most common, but it remains unclear which genes affect a child’s probability of developing autism. A child whose parent had autism will not always develop the disorder, but the chances of it happening are high.

Environmental factors a child is exposed to while in the mother’s womb also affect the development of autism. One common cause is the mother’s own immune response to viral infections. If triggered during early pregnancy, this immune response has a negative effect on the development of the child’s brain and nervous system.

Some studies propose other factors that can cause autism to develop shortly after the child is born. These include mercury poisoning, certain vaccinations, viral infections, and exposure to opiates.

Autism and antidepressants

According to laboratory tests done on animals, the intake of antidepressant substances called selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) in high amounts resulted in autism-like behaviors. Further studies show exposure to SSRI increases the probability a child will develop autism up to four times. This means women taking antidepressants containing SSRI during pregnancy risk increasing the chances their child will be born autistic.

Like most of the research done on autism causes, the studies linking autism and antidepressants are still incomplete. Despite this, many doctors advise pregnant mothers to be aware of the potential risks involved when taking SSRI drugs during pregnancy.

If you were taking antidepressants during your pregnancy and your child developed autism, you can look for an autism attorney to help you acquire compensation from the company that produced the drugs.

Adriana knows all about autism causes, and possible link between autism and antidepressants.

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Categories of Autism Signs

Autism is a common psychological condition and neurological development disorder that typically affects a child’s social communication and interaction skills as well as being characterized by repetitive or restrictive behavior. Autism alters or changes how the nerve cell synapses connect and organize, therefore affecting the information processing capabilities of the brain. Unfortunately, Autism research still has not discovered how and why this occurs.

Autism signs will typically manifest themselves in three critical areas of an individual’s development – behavioral, lingual, and social. Interestingly enough, no two children are alike when it comes to actions and skill levels even when they are diagnosed with the same type of Autism. Though the real reasons is still not obvious how children with the same level of autism display different characterized behavior pattern but symptoms and autism signs differ. Maybe the family patterns of behavior, genetic factors and environmental issues lead to the differences. However, research is being conducted to know more about the inner working of an autistic individual.

Although the different patterns of behavior are broadly similar, they can be put together under three main headings of autism signs of behavior, development milestones and social patterns of behavior. Autistic children seem to be easily disturbed by the slightest change of their normal routine, tend to flap hands, rocking, spinning, and other repetitive movements, light, sound, and touch sensitivities despite seeming nearly oblivious to pain and are extremely restless.

Autistic signs are apparent in the emotional development of the children. Developmental milestones are delayed up to 2½ years. Most of these children do not start talking or make eye contact until 2 years of age. They have no concept of a conversation. Most of them repeat phrases and words without understanding their meaning. Robot-like speech or a sing-song voice when communicating is noticed. Sometimes children regress and there is noticeable loss of previously acquired abilities such as saying certain words or speaking in complete sentences.

However there are social signs and aspect which are visible such as appearing to be unaware of other children’s or another individual’s feelings, poor eye contact, resisting any form of affection such as cuddling, and hugs are not particularly enjoyed. They prefer to play by themselves.

However, most of these Autism signs are common ones that you want to look for if you suspect that your child is suffering with the disorder. The more severe cases involve the complete inability to communicate or interact with other individuals. Additionally, some signs appear as early as infancy, but in other children who appear to be normal during the first few months of their lives, suddenly change without warning.

Autism signs will typically appear between the time the child has reached the age of 18 months up until they reach three years of age. Additionally, there are two other forms of the disorder in the Autism spectrum, specifically Asperger syndrome and PDD-NOS (Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified). The bottom line is that the genetics of Autism are extremely complex.

Though there is no cure of autism, research aspects are going on to find a cure but as most of the issues are genetic, the race is on. Children receiving the treatment and behavioral therapy early in life are finding a better chance of being rehabilitated.

For the latest videos and training information on child development as well as books and curricula on Autism please visit childdevelopmentmedia.com.

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Hereditary – Genetic Cause Of Autism

Everyone knows genetics play a large part in our lives: what color hair you will have, how tall you will be, the color of your skin, basically your overall appearance. Scientists say the same goes for autism; there is not just one kind of autism. Some people have very mild autism, where you won’t even notice they have it. During the past decades, scientists have made breakthroughs in finally beginning to understand the genetic bases of autism.

International research into the causes of Autism Spectrum Disorders (including the genetic aspects) is being fueled by recent developments. Evidence points to genetic factors playing a prominent role in the causes for ASD.

The consensus nowadays is that heritability contributes a very great deal to the risk of a child developing autism, but the genetics of autism are complex and typically it is unclear which genes are responsible.

Twin and family studies have suggested an underlying genetic vulnerability to ASD. To further research in this field, the Autism Genetic Resource Exchange is recruiting genetic samples from several hundred families.

Each family with more than one member diagnosed with ASD is given a two-hour, in-home screening. With a large number of DNA samples, it is hoped that the most important genes will be found. This will enable scientists to learn what the culprit genes do and how they can go wrong.

So it seems that congenital (existing at birth) factors play an important part. Some scientists believe that a cluster of unstable genes that adversely affects the development of the brain may cause autism. The first research results indicate that various chromosome spots are found where genomes could not possibly be. The most obvious spots are found on chromosomes 2, 7 and 16.Especially chromosome 7 stands out. However, the room on chromosome 7 is rather large and comprises a couple of hundred genomes. The next problem to be investigated carefully is which genome(s) on chromosome 7 in fact is/are connected to autism.

Recent neuroimaging studies have shown that a contributing cause for autism may be abnormal brain development beginning in the infant’s first months. This “growth dysregulation hypothesis” holds that the anatomical abnormalities seen in autism are caused by genetic defects in brain growth factors. It is possible that sudden, rapid head growth in an infant may be an early warning signal that will lead to early diagnosis and effective biological intervention or possible prevention of autism.

For detailed information on Autism Spectrum Disorders research, see the NIMH website, Autism Spectrum Disorders Research.

Some scientists believe in a genetic theory called “complex inheritance.” What scientists mean by“complex theory” is that many different factors are probably included in this inheritance. While an autistic person must have the right genes to have autism, environmental factors may add to the development of autism. Here is an example: let’s say you have a specific type of gene which makes a special type of chemical and which causes a chain reaction with another type of chemical. By studying autistic people, scientists may be able to find out the exact environmental issue, like chemicals in paint, that could contribute to causing autism.

Prof. dr. R.B. Minderaa points out that in Autism, as a rough estimate, between 80 to 90% of hereditary factors play a part. Autism can be hereditary in three ways.
•In most people with an ASD hereditary factors play a part. This is a combination of(hereditary) risk factors and coincidence.
•In a very small percentage (1 to 1,5%) autism shows up as a part of a syndrome existing at birth (i.e. Tuberous sclerosis, Williams-Beuren Syndrome, Landau Kleffner Syndrome, Lennox Gasteau Syndrome, Lujan Frijns Syndrome).
•In a very small percentage (1 to 1,5%) autism is the result of a specific chromosome deviation (i.e. fragile X-syndrome, Klinefelter, Turner). In these syndromes it can, from a medical point of view, be clearly indicated where the cause originates. In these cases heredity research can be conducted.

The hereditary factor
It appears that autism may run in families, since families with multiple children often have more than one child exhibiting signs on the autistic spectrum. In addition, parents may show signs of autism.

The chance that in a family with an ASD child another child with ASD is born lies between 2 and 5%. Therefore, parents with an ASD child have a chance up to 100 times greater to have another child with ASD than parents who have ‘normal’ children.
Studies of twins also indicate a hereditary factor in the occurrence of autism.
Family researches have proven that in families where autism is found, disorders are more often met than in families without autism. It then involves disorders such as reading, spelling, language and/or motor disorders or other development disorders such Attention Deficit and Hyper Activity Disorder (ADHAD) or a tic disorder and also milder forms of autism.

Hereditary-Genetic cause of autism

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Tagged as: Autism, Autism spectrum, Autism Spectrum Disorder, Genetic, Genetic Cause Of Autism, Hereditary

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Teaching Strategies For Autistic Students – The Secrets To Teaching Children With Autism

Teaching Strategies For Autistic Students

Autism is a developmental disorder the present can affect anyone. Although genetic factors are claimed to be the most powerful sites behind it, there are several other situations that can essentially shoot about the development of autism. Despite the disability engaged when one has autism, teaching autistic children is carry on to possible using techniques that are definite to work. Teaching Strategies For Autistic Students

One of the most debilitating characteristics of autism is the learning disabilities that come with it. When it comes to teaching children with autism, hard is really an understatement. The whole effort to teach children who have this disorder is definitely going to involve not just a mountain but mountain ranges to conquer.

When determining the teaching strategies to use, a teacher can take note of the different symptoms of autism that can impede the natural learning process. Ample knowledge of such symptoms can make the strategy and teaching process effective. There is no assurance that it is going to be easy though.

Here are some of the factors that need attention and thorough consideration to success in the aim of teaching children with autism.

1. Teaching environment. Because of autism, children find it hard to concentrate especially in the presence of loud noises and colors. They get easily distracted by such elements. Therefore, it is a must that the classroom or wherever the teaching process takes place should be kept at its plainest form. It should also be quiet and peaceful enough in order to help keep the children feel the same. Teaching Strategies For Autistic Students

2. Routine activities. Children with autism cannot handle surprises. The daily activities should follow a certain routine. The kids have a good idea of what is going to happen next. This is the only way for them to concentrate and learn.

3. Limited options. When making the children choose something, it is important to keep everything simple. They should not be subjected to a number of choices. It is very easy for them to get all confused over many selections. In the end, they learn nothing and might even feel bad about the whole process. Letting the child pick one over the other is the best way to do it. Teaching Strategies For Autistic Students

4. Simple communication. Using simple words is the best way to get the points across and completely understood by these young autistic kids. More so, one should maintain a lower voice since loud ones tend to agitate these children. Don’t let your love ones suffer anymore! Lead them out through Teaching Strategies For Autistic Students program now!

Feeling lost without solutions? Teaching Strategies For Autistic Students is a proven Autism Solution for your Child. Try The Program and change child’s life forever!
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