As you know, a female has two X chromosomes, and a male has an X and a Y.
If a gene for a condition lies on the X chromosome, we call this an X-linked condition. Typically X-linked conditions are noticeable in males rather than females, because males have only one X chromosome. Females have a second X which stills functions properly, often preventing the condition from occurring if their other X has a changed gene.
Affected males often don’t reproduce, but if they do, they will pass their one damaged X to ALL of their daughters, since they can’t pass a Y to a female. Therefore, all of their daughters must be carriers of this condition.
Carrier daughters have a 50-50 chance of passing their damaged X to their children, either sons or daughters, with each pregnancy. If they pass it to a daughter, she will also be a carrier. If they pass it to a son, he will be affected with the condition.
An X-linked condition which is well-known is hemophilia, a bleeding disorder. If you looked at a family tree where hemophilia is present, you’ll see several affected males with hemophilia in different generations and no affected women, and you will not see any male to male transmission, only female to male.
There are some conditions which are X-linked and do affect women, such as RETT syndrome, a severe neurological disorder. Syndromes like this are typically severe, and are said to be X-linked dominant, as it takes only one damaged X to cause the disorder. The other X keeps the disorder from being lethal. In this case, if a male inherited the damaged X, if he were born alive he would likely not survive long. Typically these conditions are not inherited because those who are affected will not be able to reproduce. Instead, these conditions are caused by new mutations in the offspring or germline mutations in parents.
Note that I’m not discussing Y-linked disorders much because they are much less common. The Y has very few genes compared to all other chromosomes, and its main function is to cause a male to become male during embryogenesis. There’s a region on Y called SRY which is necessary for male-ness. A child with a Y who is structurally a girl may be missing that region of the Y. That about sums it up for the Y, in brief.
Hope that answers your question!