Hi, We have a new volunteer. Our first. Elizabeth Campion, from the Shelby Township library here in Michigan. She is an expert at mining data, She did this as a sample of her work. Even I had not heard all these facts. I thank her for this work.
CENTERS FOR DISEASE CONTROL AND PREVENTION DATA AND STATISTICS
About one in 88 children has been identified with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) according to estimates from CDC’s Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring (ADDM) Network.
ASD’s are reported to occur in all racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic groups.
ASD’s are almost five times more common among boys (1 in54) than among girls (1 in 252).
Studies in Asia, Europe, and North America have identified individuals with an ASD with an average prevalence of about 1%. A recent study in South Korea reported a prevalence of 2.6%.
About one in 6 children in the U.S. had a developmental disability in 2006-2008, ranging from mild disabilities such as speech and language impairments to serious developmental disabilities, such as intellectual disabilities, cerebral palsy, and autism.
RISK FACTORS AND CHARACTERISTICS
Studies have shown that among identical twins, if one child has an ASD, then the other will be affected about 36-95% of the time. In non-identical twins, if one child has an ASD, then the other is affected about 0-31% of the time.
Parents who have a child with an ASD have a 2-18% chance of having a second child who is also affected.
ASDs tend to occur more often in people who have certain genetic or chromosomal conditions. About 10% of children with autism are also identified as having Down syndrome, fragile X syndrome, tubers sclerosis, and other genetic and chromosomal disorders.
The majority (62%) of children the ADDM Network identified as having ASDs did not have intellectual disability.
Children born to older parents are at a higher risk for ASDs.
A small percentage of children who are born prematurely or with low birth weight are at greater risk for having ASDs.
ASD commonly co-occurs with other developmental, psychiatric, neurologic, chromosomal and genetic diagnoses. The co-occurrence of one or more non-ASD developmental diagnoses is 83%. The co-occurrence of one or more psychiatric diagnoses is 10%.
Research has shown that a diagnosis of autism at age 2 can be reliable, valid and stable.
More children are being diagnosed at earlier ages – a growing number (18%) of them by age 3. Still, most children are not diagnosed until after they reach age 4. Diagnosis is a bit earlier for children with autistic disorder (4years) than for children with the more broadly-defined autism spectrum diagnoses (4 years, 5 months) and diagnosis is much later for children with Asperger Disorder (6 years, 3 months).
Studies have shown that parents of children with ASDs notice a developmental problem before their child’s first birthday. Concerns about vision and hearing were more often reported in the first year, and differences in social, communication, and fine motor skills were evident from 6 months of age.
Individuals with an ASD had average medical expenditures that exceeded those without an ASD by $4,110-$6,200 per year. On average, medical expenditures for individuals with an ASD were 4.1 – 6.2 times greater than for those without an ASD. Differences in median expenditures ranged from $2,240 to $3,360 per year, with median expenditures 8.4 – 9.5 times greater.
In 2005, the average annual medical costs for Medicaid-enrolled children with an ASD were $10,709 per child, which was about six times higher than costs for children without an ASD ($1,812).
In addition to medical costs, intensive behavioral interventions for children with ASDs cost $40,000 to $60,000 per child per year.