Tag Archives: Criteria For Autism

Question?: Autistic Behavior

William asks…

How can the actions of an autistic / low IQ person be categorized into autistic behavior or IQ behavior.?

How can violent outbursts be broken into either autistic action vs the low IQ issues?
How can violent outbursts be broken into either autistic action vs the low IQ issues?

The man is ‘retarded’, a legal term, IQ 58. Also Autistic. Are all actions co-joined, or can some violent acts be related to his IQ or are all related to both?

admin answers:

Autism and low-IQ are significantly different things. What exactly is your question? The diagnosis would be based not on whether they have a low IQ or even whether they are aggressive, but instead on whether they meet the behavioral criteria for autism (not understanding social interactions, limited verbal skills, sensory sensitivity, etc.). Mental retardation (ok, so it’s not PC anymore, but it’s the officer term for it) is diagnosed based on completely different criteria.

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Question?: Pdd-nos

Linda asks…

does a child with pdd-nos have hope of being normal in the future?

my 22 month old son was diagnosed with pdd-nos a month ago in april of 2009.. i hear pdd-nos is like a step away from not having it at all..(whatever that means). i was just wondering can pdd-nos go away wit the program,early intervention, he will start getting soon or is this something he will definitely deal with for his entire life?

admin answers:

That is supposed to mean like barely being on the autistic spectrum. Unfortunatly, that isn’t accurate. PDD-NOS is usually diagnosed when your child doesn’t quite meet all the criteria for Autism.

Your son will learn and grow, and early intervention is one of the steps towards overcoming his symptoms of pdd-nos. It is way to early, and there isn’t nearly enough information here to suggest any type of prognosis for your son. Working with early intervention, the school, and on your own with your son are all important in helping him overcome as many of his symptoms as possible.

The following is what I’ve done that has helped my daughter. No matter how young your child is, start using social stories! Get used to making them up on the fly. Get familiar with the format. Go to http://www.thegraycenter.org/ to learn more and to see samples. Basically, a social story is a script for your child to help them understand proper behavior in a situation, give words to the different feelings they might have, and give them a resolution/solution. Since social situations are so difficult for our kids, they need concrete information to learn to navigate.

I remember when my daughter was 3 and this advice was given to me. Absurd I thought, she’s doesn’t have the receptive language to understand…The stories are to complex and long. She won’t get it. Finally, after hearing enough people talk about it, I gave in and tried.

As an example, daughter had a huge issue with me making right turns on a red light. She had just connected the fact that red light means stop! If you’re walking and you see a red light…STOP. If you’re driving, apparently you were supposed to stop in place when you saw red. Turning on red was absolutly forbidden in her mind, we’re talking major tantrums in the car over this. Yes it would be easy just to stop making right turns on red lights, but the world doesn’t revolve around her. She needed to learn the rules of the world. I started by pointing out other cars that were making right turns on red lights. I repeated over and over “Right turn red light ok”. A very simple social story. Eventually she got the message that it was ok, and the tantrums stopped.

At first the social stories were very simple, and verbal. As her reading skills quickly developed and showed to be a strong learning channel, I would write them as well. I can now make up social stories on the fly, and give her the script. They don’t work immediatly, but do soak in over time and make a difference.

2.
Understand that people will stare when your child is having a tantrum. People aren’t necessarily mean, but they’re often ignorant about autism. People will offer you all sorts of unsolicited advice on how you should handle the situation at hand… I’ve heard everything from “She needs a nap” to “It’s ok to spank her you know” as well as some really awful obnoxious comments. How much you tell others is your personal choice. Me, I’m an open book and I’ve educated many in my community about my daughter and her autism. Many at the stores we frequent know her and have watched her grow up. They’re more tolerant, and have been known to shut down rude shoppers who have commented on my daughter’s behavior when she’s been “off”. You need to learn to develop a thick skin, and to shut out the world around you to focus on your child. Don’t be afraid to get down on the ground with your child when out in public and they’re really upset. Stay calm and focused on helping your child. It gets really easy to tune everything else out, and it’s kind of amazing. When you act this way, you actually get more understanding from strangers. They can tell by your actions that you’ve got the situation under control (whether you do or not) and are not a neglectful parent with a bratty kid.

Along those lines, to develop that thick skin and ability to tune out the ignorance, take your child EVERYWHERE that you can. YES it’s very hard work, but if you think of it as therapy, which it is, you’ll understand the importance. It was way easier for me to go grocery shopping alone, but I took my daughter as often as humanly possible. Expose your child as often as possible to a variety of situations. Use the social stories to explain in their terms what they’re experiencing. The more often you can do this, the better. Again, this is HARD WORK! But so worth it. If it’s really really hard, don’t make it a grocery shopping trip, but just a trip to buy milk or cereal. One or two items then work your way up.

The more exposure to the world the better. This helps with rigidity issues as well as learning social cues and scripts.

Don’t always drive the same route or follow the same routine. Although routine is so very important to children with autism, trust me, you don’t want to get to entrenched. Flexibility is also an issue, children with autism tend to be rather inflexible. By changing routines frequently, your child will learn to live with change without too much trauma.

I know you didn’t ask for all the above information, but knowing what it’s like to be in your shoes, wondering what to do, I thought I’d offer it up anyways.

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AUTISM: what,why,how…….?

Autism is a disorder of neural development characterized by impaired social interaction and communication, and repetitive behavior. These signs all begin before a child is three years old.

Autism affects information processing in the brain by altering how nerve cells and their synapses connect and organize; how this occurs is not well understood.

It is one of three recognized disorders in the autism spectrum (ASDs), the other two being Asperger syndrome, which lacks delays in cognitive development and language, and Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified (commonly abbreviated as PDD-NOS), which is diagnosed when the full set of criteria for autism or Asperger syndrome are not met.

In rare cases, autism is strongly associated with agents that cause birth defects.

Although there is no known cure, early behavioral or cognitive intervention can help autistic children gain self-care, social, and communication skills.

Not many children with autism live independently after reaching adulthood, though some become successful.

CHARACTERISTICS

 

Autism is a highly variable neurodevelopment disorder that first appears during infancy or childhood, and generally follows a steady course without remission. Overt symptoms gradually begin after the age of six months, become established by age two or three years, and tend to continue through adulthood, although often in more muted form.

It is distinguished not by a single symptom, but by a characteristic triad of symptoms: impairments in social interaction; impairments in communication; and repetitive behavior. Other aspects, such as atypical eating, are also common but are not essential for diagnosis.

 

COMMUNICATION

 

Autistic children are less likely to make requests or share experiences, and are more likely to simply repeat others’ words or reverse pronouns.

 

Autistic children may have difficulty with imaginative play and with developing symbols into language.

 

In a pair of studies, high-functioning autistic children aged 8–15 performed equally well as, and adults better than, individually matched controls at basic language tasks involving vocabulary and spelling.

 

Both autistic groups performed worse than controls at complex language tasks such as figurative language, comprehension and inference
Autistic individuals display many forms of repetitive behavior, which the Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised (RBS-R) categorizes as follows.

 

A young boy with autism, and the precise line of toys he made

 

Stereotypy is repetitive movement, such as hand flapping, making sounds, head rolling, or body rocking.

 

Ritualistic behavior involves an unvarying pattern of daily activities, such as an unchanging menu or a dressing ritual.Restricted behavior is limited in focus, interest, or activity, such as preoccupation with a single television program, toy, or game.

 

Autistic individuals may have symptoms that are independent of the diagnosis, but that can affect the individual or the family.

 

An estimated 0.5% to 10% of individuals with ASD show unusual abilities, ranging from splinter skills such as the memorization of trivia to the extraordinarily rare talents of prodigious autistic savants.

 

Many individuals with ASD show superior skills in perception and attention, relative to the general population.

 

Sensory abnormalities are found in over 90% of those with autism, and are considered core features by some, although there is no good evidence that sensory symptoms differentiate autism from other developmental disorders.

 

Unusual eating behavior occurs in about three-quarters of children with ASD, to the extent that it was formerly a diagnostic indicator.

 

Selectivity is the most common problem, although eating rituals and food refusal also occur; this does not appear to result in malnutrition.

 

CAUSES

 

It has long been presumed that there is a common cause at the genetic, cognitive, and neural levels for autism’s characteristic triad of symptoms.

However, there is increasing suspicion that autism is instead a complex disorder whose core aspects have distinct causes that often co-occur.

 

 

Deletion (1), duplication (2) and inversion (3) are all chromosome abnormalities that have been implicated in autism.

Autism has a strong genetic basis, although the genetics of autism are complex and it is unclear whether ASD is explained more by rare mutations with major effects, or by rare multigene interactions of common genetic variants.

Complexity arises due to interactions among multiple genes, the environment, and epigenetic factors which do not change DNA but are heritable and influence gene expression.

However, most of the mutations that increase autism risk have not been identified. Typically, autism cannot be traced to a Mendelian (single-gene) mutation or to a single chromosome abnormality like fragile X syndrome, and none of the genetic syndromes associated with ASDs have been shown to selectively cause ASD.

Numerous candidate genes have been located, with only small effects attributable to any particular gene. The large number of autistic individuals with unaffected family members may result from copy number variations—spontaneous deletions or duplications in genetic material during meiosis.

Hence, a substantial fraction of autism cases may be traceable to genetic causes that are highly heritable but not inherited: that is, the mutation that causes the autism is not present in the parental genome.

Several lines of evidence point to synaptic dysfunction as a cause of autism.

Some rare mutations may lead to autism by disrupting some synaptic pathways, such as those involved with cell adhesion.

Gene replacement studies in mice suggest that autistic symptoms are closely related to later developmental steps that depend on activity in synapses and on activity-dependent changes.

All known teratogens (agents that cause birth defects) related to the risk of autism appear to act during the first eight weeks from conception, and though this does not exclude the possibility that autism can be initiated or affected later, it is strong evidence that autism arises very early in development.

SCREENING

 

About half of parents of children with ASD notice their child’s unusual behaviors by age 18 months, and about four-fifths notice by age 24 months. As postponing treatment may affect long-term outcome, any of the following signs is reason to have a child evaluated by a specialist without delay:

No babbling by 12 months.

No gesturing by 12 months.

No single words by 16 months.

No two-word spontaneous phrases (other than instances of echolalia) by 24 months.

Any loss of any language or social skills, at any age.

US and Japanese practice is to screen all children for ASD at 18 and 24 months, using autism-specific formal screening tests.

It may be more accurate to precede these tests with a broadband screener that does not distinguish ASD from other developmental disorders.

Screening tools designed for one culture’s norms for behaviors like eye contact may be inappropriate for a different culture.

Although genetic screening for autism is generally still impractical, it can be considered in some cases, such as children with neurological symptoms and dysmorphic features.

 

DIAGNOSIS

 

Diagnosis is based on behavior, not cause or mechanism. Autism is defined in the DSM-IV-TR as exhibiting at least six symptoms total, including at least two symptoms of qualitative impairment in social interaction, at least one symptom of qualitative impairment in communication, and at least one symptom of restricted and repetitive behavior.

 

Sample symptoms include lack of social or emotional reciprocity, stereotyped and repetitive use of language or idiosyncratic language, and persistent preoccupation with parts of objects.

 

Onset must be prior to age three years, with delays or abnormal functioning in either social interaction, language as used in social communication, or symbolic or imaginative play.

The disturbance must not be better accounted for by Rett syndrome or childhood disintegrative disorder.

ICD-10 uses essentially the same definition.

Several diagnostic instruments are available. Two are commonly used in autism research: the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) is a semistructured parent interview, and the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) uses observation and interaction with the child.

The Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) is used widely in clinical environments to assess severity of autism based on observation of children.

A pediatrician commonly performs a preliminary investigation by taking developmental history and physically examining the child.

If warranted, diagnosis and evaluations are conducted with help from ASD specialists, observing and assessing cognitive, communication, family, and other factors using standardized tools, and taking into account any associated medical conditions.

A pediatric neuropsychologist is often asked to assess behavior and cognitive skills, both to aid diagnosis and to help recommend educational interventions.

A differential diagnosis for ASD at this stage might also consider mental retardation, hearing impairment, and a specific language impairmentsuch as Landau–Kleffner syndrome.

The presence of autism can make it harder to diagnose coexisting psychiatric disorders such as depression.

Clinical genetics evaluations are often done once ASD is diagnosed, particularly when other symptoms already suggest a genetic cause.

Although genetic technology allows clinical geneticists to link an estimated 40% of cases to genetic causes, consensus guidelines in the US and UK are limited to high-resolution chromosome and fragile X testing.

A genotype-first model of diagnosis has been proposed, which would routinely assess the genome’s copy number variations.

As new genetic tests are developed several ethical, legal, and social issues will emerge. Commercial availability of tests may precede adequate understanding of how to use test results, given the complexity of autism’s genetics.

Metabolic and neuroimaging tests are sometimes helpful, but are not routine.

ASD can sometimes be diagnosed by age 14 months, although diagnosis becomes increasingly stable over the first three years of life

Although the symptoms of autism and ASD begin early in childhood, they are sometimes missed; years later, adults may seek diagnoses to help them or their friends and family understand themselves, to help their employers make adjustments, or in some locations to claim disability living allowances or other benefits.

Underdiagnosis and overdiagnosis are problems in marginal cases, and much of the recent increase in the number of reported ASD cases is likely due to changes in diagnostic practices. The increasing popularity of drug treatment options and the expansion of benefits has given providers incentives to diagnose ASD, resulting in some overdiagnosis of children with uncertain symptoms.

Conversely, the cost of screening and diagnosis and the challenge of obtaining payment can inhibit or delay diagnosis. It is particularly hard to diagnose autism among the visually impaired, partly because some of its diagnostic criteria depend on vision, and partly because autistic symptoms overlap with those of common blindness syndromes or blindisms.

 

PROGNOSIS

 

No cure is known.

Children recover occasionally, so that they lose their diagnosis of ASD; this occurs sometimes after intensive treatment and sometimes not.

It is not known how often recovery happens; reported rates in unselected samples of children with ASD have ranged from 3% to 25%.

Most autistic children can acquire language by age 5 or younger, though a few have developed communication skills in later years.

Most children with autism lack social support, meaningful relationships, future employment opportunities or self-determination.

Although core difficulties tend to persist, symptoms often become less severe with age. Few high-quality studies address long-term prognosis. Some adults show modest improvement in communication skills, but a few decline; no study has focused on autism after midlife.

Acquiring language before age six, having an IQ above 50, and having a marketable skill all predict better outcomes; independent living is unlikely with severe autism.

 

Several other conditions are common in children with autism.

They include:

 

Genetic disorders. About 10–15% of autism cases have an identifiable Mendelian (single-gene) condition, chromosome abnormality, or other genetic syndrome, and ASD is associated with several genetic disorders.

 

Mental retardation. The fraction of autistic individuals who also meet criteria for mental retardation has been reported as anywhere from 25% to 70%, a wide variation illustrating the difficulty of assessing autistic intelligence. For ASD other than autism, the association with mental retardation is much weaker.

 

Anxiety disorders are common among children with ASD; there are no firm data, but studies have reported prevalences ranging from 11% to 84%. Many anxiety disorders have symptoms that are better explained by ASD itself, or are hard to distinguish from ASD’s symptoms.

 

Epilepsy with variations in risk of epilepsy due to age, cognitive level, and type of language disorder.

Several metabolic defects, such as phenylketonuria, are associated with autistic symptoms.

 

 

PROJECT:1. Project on ‘’JATROPHA CULTIVATION, THE FUTURE PROSPECTIVE OF BIODIESEL- A CASE STUDY IN RASGOVINDPUR BLOCK OF MAYURBHANJ DISTRICT” at North Orissa University in 2008.2. Project on ‘’ENUMERATION OF SIX MAJOR GROUPS OF BACTERIA       FROM MANGROOVE SOILS OF BHITARKANIKA‘’at North Orissa University in 2009. PUBLICATIONS: ONLINE ARTICLE PUBLICATIONS:  http://www.articlesbase.com/health-articles/medicinal-value-of-allium-sativum-3533903.html http://www.articlesbase.com/health-articles/medicinal-value-of-aloe-vera-3596754.html http://www.articlesbase.com/diseases-and-conditions-articles/thalassemia-causes-and-treatments-3723551.html  SEMINAR GIVEN:  AWARDS:TRAINING:
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The Importance Of An Aspergers Diagnosis

Getting an Aspergers diagnosis is the first step in helping your child. Getting a diagnosis can be tricky since symptoms vary and change over time. There is also the common element of having more than one condition and that can cause simultaneous symptoms. Regardless of the diagnosis reached at the end of the evaluation, this is helpful to parents. Identifying the illness or condition can provide a type of road map for coping with the illness. A diagnosis will also help you start to heal your child.

Obtaining an early and specific diagnosis allows for early intervention services to begin. Earlier is better for the success rate of therapies and other services. There is a greater chance of reaching age appropriate learning with early intervention. Getting an early and specific diagnosis is important, but getting a second opinion can be just as important. Many childhood behaviors mimic each other and second opinion is invaluable when assessing a child. The severity of Aspergers Syndrome can vary greatly from person to person so getting a second opinion might be necessary to confirm an Aspergers diagnosis.

Many Aspergers children are very intelligent. This intelligence may cover symptoms until they are diagnosed as adults. Many adults with Aspergers are very high-functioning and are clever enough to develop coping mechanisms to deal with their condition. The most widely recognized diagnostic tool for Aspergers Syndrome is the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Known as the DSM, it has the full diagnostic criteria for pervasive developmental disorders such as autism and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).

The most recent revision of the DSM is called DSM-IV. This states that the criteria for Aspergers Syndrome (AS) follows the same format as the criteria for autism. The symptoms are organized by onset, social and emotional criteria. There is also a “restricted interests” criteria and motor deficits as well as isolated special skills. The final criterion for an Aspergers diagnosis is the exclusion of other conditions. Pervasive Development Disorder and autism must be ruled out to get to the Aspergers diagnosis. The child might demonstrate behavioral delays or odd behavior patterns in multiple areas of functioning.

An Aspergers specialist can teach a child social skills and help him to understand his Aspergers diagnosis. The first place to look for help is in school. School counselors are trained to teach learning skills and they have a basic understanding of psychology. They have a working knowledge of the DSM diagnostic criteria and they often work with doctors and psychiatrists when considering a diagnosis for a child. Many countries mandate the evaluation of any child with a disability of any kind. An evaluation is done for the purposes of remediation and assistance. If you have a child who is not in school, find a licensed psychologist, with a PhD from an accredited university, to see your child.

As you can see there are a number of reasons why an Aspergers diagnosis can be important to you and your child. In 2012 the diagnosis itself may be removed with the introduction to DSM 5, watch this space…

Dave Angel has been helping parents of children and young adults with Aspergers online for over four years. Read more of his information about Aspergers and Diagnosis
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Autism In Toddler – Is Your Toddler Diagnosed Autistic?

Autism In Toddler

Autism, High functioning Autism, Asperger Syndrome, Pervasive Developmental Disorder Non Specific (PDDNOS) Which autism spectrum diagnosis has your child received?

I understand this is a very anxious time for you. You’ve found out your child has Autism, a developmental disorder which until recently you may never have even heard of. I know too, that like many other parents that when he was much younger, you felt something was wrong, but no-one would listen to you. They said you were over-anxious or a new parent and told you to wait and see. Well you waited, and this is how it turned out!

There is no blood test for Autism, no MRI scan. Diagnosis is through observation and parent interview using DSM-IV (American Psychiatric Association, 1994).

A diagnosis of autistic disorder is given when an individual displays 6 or more of 12 symptoms listed across three major areas

social interaction
communication
stereotypical behaviour

When a child display similar behaviours but does not fully meet the specific criteria for autism, they may receive a diagnosis of Pervasive Developmental Disorder-NOS (PDD not otherwise specified). Autism In Toddler

Back in 2003 Ned Bachelder, the father of an autistic son wrote this:

‘I’m not going to claim that having an autistic child is a wonderful, life-affirming experience, that every day is a new beginning, that it makes me feel more alive. On the whole, it is a wearying, grinding, frustrating experience. It means constantly re-evaluating possibilities, (usually) lowering expectations, and planning for the worst.’

I hope it doesn’t have to be like that for much longer. Autism is diagnosed earlier now, thanks to increased public awareness by parents like Ned and amazing charities set up to fight for the cause. It may be no consolation for you however to have become part of the statistics of 1 in 110 children who have an Autism Spectrum Disorder. Especially when scientists appear no nearer to finding a cure.

Now you have your diagnosis, you have the answer to your question ‘what is wrong with my child.’ If not right now, then very soon you will likely be asking ‘What can I do about it?’

Early intervention has been shown to be effective. Every child with autism is different, but often display delay in gross and fine motor skills, attention, speech and language, and self-help skills. Parents report an awkward gait, difficulty mastering stairs, and even a fear and hatred of cutlery as the child continues to finger feed into preschool years.

Many children on the autistic spectrum have problems with chewing and swallowing, are picky eaters and have a restricted diet due to their limited food preferences. They may have a high need for oral stimulation, chewing and mouthing objects long after their peers.

Early intervention does not have to break the bank There are a few simple things you can do right now with your child at home to promote gains for them in gross and fine motor skills, reduce ‘stimming’ behaviours and encourage communication. Autism In Toddler


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