Tag Archives: Asds

Question?: Autism Signs And Symptoms

Sandy asks…

Why are so many children being diagnosed with autism?

It may just be that I notice this because of my hightened awareness, especially since my 2 children are both on the spectrum. It seems like everyday I find out that another person I know has a child with autism, or someone contacts me for advice with their autistic child. Is this really as bad as it seems to me? Why is this an epidemic? What are your theories?

admin answers:

The diagnostic criteria were revised in 1994, allowing more children to be diagnosed. Most importantly, the Asperger’s syndrome diagnosis was created. People who were previously considered simply eccentric are now on the spectrum. Lower-functioning autistics are also more likely to be diagnosed. When Leo Kanner first described autism in the 1940s, he excluded children with other conditions (i.e. Mental retardation and epilepsy) in order to prove that autism was a distinct condition. Now we know that many low-functioning autistics have an intellectual disability, and that epilepsy is relatively common in people with ASDs.

There is also increased awareness, largely due to the Internet. Parents and schools are more likely to notice a child’s symptoms and recognize them as signs of autism. Professionals know more about autism than they did a few decades ago, and can make more accurate diagnoses. Many people are realizing that autism isn’t just a boys’ disorder, so more girls on the spectrum are receiving the correct diagnosis. Because of increased awareness, there is less stigma as well. More people are willing to take their child to be evaluated, and are more open about their child’s autism.

It’s not an epidemic and I don’t believe there are more people out there with autism. It’s just that more people are being *diagnosed* with autism due to criteria changes and awareness. In your situation, it’s very likely that you’re more aware of autistic kids around you. Plus, people may be more likely to discuss an autistic child with you, since you have two of your own.

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Question?: Rett Syndrome Research

Lisa asks…

Does anyone know what exactly autism tendencies might mean?

I’ve just been told that my 6-year old son, who is in kindergarten is showing some autism tendencies. What could this mean for his future? Is it genetic, like a learning disorder? I want to learn as much as I can regarding this.

admin answers:

Hey 🙂 i work with children with severe autism. Autism is a developmental disorder and is the most common developmental disorder in a group called the autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Other ASDs include Asperger syndrome, Rett syndrome, childhood disintegrative disorder, and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified .

Tho each child is individual most people with autism have impairments in social interaction, social communication, and imagination. This is referred to as the triad of impairments.

I dont belive there is any direct research which shows autism is genetic, i think they are unsure about the cause.

There are lost of usefull websites on autism, and the autism awareness society.

Http://www.autism-society.org/site/PageServer
http://www.nimh.nih.gov/publicat/autism.cfm
http://www.learningdifficulties.org.au/autism.htm

hope you find them helpful, all the best faerie rainbow dust x x x x x

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Aspergers in Toddlers

Asperger Syndrome (AS), also called Asperger’s, is a disorder in the autism spectrum disorder (ASD) range. It is characterized by repetitive and restrictive patterns of interests and behaviors, and difficulties in social interaction. It is not as severe as some of the other ASDs because cognitive and linguistic development does not tend to be impacted. There are several generalized symptoms of the disorder, particularly clumsiness, atypical use of language, limited empathy, and limited or no nonverbal communication skills. The disorder is named after the Austrian pediatrician, Hans Asperger, who first noticed these symptoms in children in his practice in 1944. Today, with the knowledge modern medicine has regarding neurology and symptoms, Aspergers in toddlers may be diagnosed much sooner than in previous decades.

No one knows the exact cause of Asperger’s, although there is a suspected genetic basis. Most people diagnosed with the disorder improve as they mature, and although there is no one treatment or cure, people with the syndrome can manage the worst of their symptoms with behavioral therapy. Some people with AS deal with social and communication problems their whole lives.

The symptoms of Aspergers in toddlers are usually present, although the diagnosis is usually not made until the child reaches seven or nine years of age. Early warning signs may allow a diagnosis to be made much sooner, which would benefit a child who may receive therapy to help with the worst of the symptoms. Some kids with Asperger’s fail to attain milestones like crawling, waving, other simple gestures, and unassisted standing within the first year. These kids may also fail to make eye contact, show an aversion to affection, and may prefer being alone. Repetitive behaviors may also appear in the first year or two, like rocking.

Other symptoms of Aspergers in toddlers include abnormal non-verbal communication, lack of social skills, advanced language development, poor coordination – clumsiness, reflex abnormalities, delayed concept of joint attention, delayed use of gestures, delayed pointing, preoccupation with certain topics or items, early reading, sensitivity to stimuli, and obsession with complex topics.

Children with an autism spectrum disorder like Aspergers may begin to develop verbal communication or social skills, but then start to lose those skills around age three. The sooner an autistic or Asperger’s Syndrome child is diagnosed, the sooner behavioral therapy can begin. Early treatment can sometimes lessen the severity of the disorder and help the child to be more able to get along in life. Speak to your doctor if you feel your child may have Aspergers disorder.

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Study Shows Delays In Siblings Of Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders

Main Category: Autism
Article Date: 17 May 2012 – 2:00 PDT Current ratings for:
‘Study Shows Delays In Siblings Of Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders’
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A new University of Miami (UM) study shows that one in three children who have an older sibling with an Autism Related Disorder (ASD) fall into a group characterized by higher levels of autism-related behaviors or lower levels of developmental progress. The study will be presented at the International Meeting for Autism Research (IMFAR) in May, 2012. ASDs are developmental conditions characterized by problems with social interaction and communication. Previously, an international consortium of researchers found that almost one in five of the younger siblings of children with an ASD themselves developed an ASD.

UM’s College of Arts and Sciences professor Dr. Daniel Messinger, presenting author of the study, says, “It is clear that the younger siblings of a child with an ASD may face challenges even if they are not themselves identified with an ASD. This new work identifies classes of outcomes in these children. We found that the majority of these high risk siblings appear to be developing normally. However, a higher than expected proportion of the children face challenges related to higher levels of autism-related behaviors or lower levels of verbal and non-verbal developmental functioning.”

The study reveals that difficulties faced by the younger siblings of children with ASD involve both lower levels of verbal and nonverbal functioning and higher levels of autism-related problems. Examples of a child’s autism-related problems – which are not as severe as those of children with an ASD – include lower levels of back-and-forth play with others and lower levels of pointing to express interest in what is going on around them.

Overall, the research says, the majority of high-risk siblings are developing typically at three years of age, but the development of a substantial minority is affected by subtler forms of ASD-related problems or lower levels of developmental functioning. Lower levels of developmental functioning and higher levels of autism-related problems in the at-risk siblings define what researchers refer to as the broad autism phenotype.

Article adapted by Medical News Today from original press release. Click ‘references’ tab above for source.
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Link Between Autism Risk, Older Fathers And Spontaneous Gene Glitches

Main Category: Autism
Also Included In: Genetics
Article Date: 10 Apr 2012 – 0:00 PDT

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Researchers have turned up a new clue to the workings of a possible environmental factor in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs): fathers were four times more likely than mothers to transmit tiny, spontaneous mutations to their children with the disorders. Moreover, the number of such transmitted genetic glitches increased with paternal age. The discovery may help to explain earlier evidence linking autism risk to older fathers.

The results are among several from a trio of new studies, supported in part by the National Institutes of Health, finding that such sequence changes in parts of genes that code for proteins play a significant role in ASDs. One of the studies determined that having such glitches boosts a child’s risk of developing autism five to 20 fold.

Taken together, the three studies represent the largest effort of its kind, drawing upon samples from 549 families to maximize statistical power. They reveal sporadic mutations widely distributed across the genome, sometimes conferring risk and sometimes not. While the changes identified don’t account for most cases of illness, they are providing clues to the biology of what are likely multiple syndromes along the autism spectrum.

“These results confirm that it’s not necessarily the size of a genetic anomaly that confers risk, but its location – specifically in biochemical pathways involved in brain development and neural connections. Ultimately, it’s this kind of knowledge that will yield potential targets for new treatments,” explained Thomas, R. Insel, M.D., director of the NIH’s National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), which funded one of the studies and fostered development of the Autism Sequencing Consortium, of which all three groups are members.

Multi-site research teams led by Mark Daly, Ph.D., of the Harvard/MIT Broad Institute, Cambridge, Mass., Matthew State, M.D., Ph.D., of Yale University, New Haven, Conn., and Evan Eichler, Ph.D., of the University of Washington, Seattle, report on their findings online April 4, 2012 in the journal Nature.

The study by Daly and colleagues was supported by NIMH – including funding under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act. The State and Eichler studies were primarily supported by the Simons Foundation Autism Research Initiative. The studies also acknowledge the NIH’s National Human Genome Research Institute, National Heart Lung and Blood Institute, and National Institute on Child Health and Human Development and other NIH components.

All three teams sequenced the protein coding parts of genes in parents and an affected child – mostly in families with only one member touched by autism. One study also included comparisons with healthy siblings. Although these protein-coding areas represent only about 1.5 percent of the genome, they harbor 85 percent of disease-causing mutations. This strategy optimized the odds for detecting the few spontaneous errors in genetic transmission that confer autism risk from the “background noise” generated by the many more benign mutations.

Like larger deletions and duplications of genetic material previously implicated in autism and schizophrenia, the tiny point mutations identified in the current studies are typically not inherited in the conventional sense – they are not part of parents’ DNA, but become part of the child’s DNA. Most people have many such glitches and suffer no ill effects from them. But evidence is building that such mutations can increase risk for autism if they occur in pathways that disrupt brain development.

State’s team found that 14 percent of people with autism studied had suspect mutations – five times the normal rate. Eichler and colleagues traced 39 percent of such mutations likely to confer risk to a biological pathway known to be important for communications in the brain.

Although Daly and colleagues found evidence for only a modest role of the chance mutations in autism, those pinpointed were biologically related to each other and to genes previously implicated in autism.

The Eichler team turned up clues to how environmental factors might influence genetics. The high turnover in a male’s sperm cells across the lifespan increases the chance for errors to occur in the genetic translation process. These can be passed-on to the offspring’s DNA, even though they are not present in the father’s DNA. This risk may worsen with aging. The researchers discovered a four-fold marked paternal bias in the origins of 51 spontaneous mutations in coding areas of genes that was positively correlated with increasing age of the father. So such spontaneous mutations could account for findings of an earlier study that found fathers of boys with autism were six times – and of girls 17 times – more likely to be in their 40’s than their 20’s.

“We now have a path forward to capture a great part of the genetic variability in autism – even to the point of being able to predict how many mutations in coding regions of a gene would be needed to account for illness,” said Thomas Lehner, Ph.D., chief of the NIMH Genomics Research Branch, which funded the Daly study and helped to create the Autism Sequencing Consortium. “These studies begin to tell a more comprehensive story about the molecular underpinnings of autism that integrates previously disparate pieces of evidence.”

Article adapted by Medical News Today from original press release. Click ‘references’ tab above for source.
Visit our autism section for the latest news on this subject. Sanders SJ, Murtha MT, Gupta AR, Murdoch JD, Raubeson MJ, Willsey AJ, Ercan-Sencicek AG, DiLullo NM, Parikshak NN, Stein JL, Walker MF, Ober GT, Teran NA, Song Y, El-Fishawy P, Murtha RC, Choi M, Overton JD, Bjornson RD, Carriero NJ, Meyer KA, Bilguvar K, Mane SM, Sestan N, Lifton RP, Günel M, Roeder K, Geschwind DH, Devlin B, State MW. De novo mutations revealed by whole-exome sequencing are strongly associated with autism. April 5, 2012. Nature.
O’Roak BJ, Vives L, Girirajan S, Karakoc E, Krumm N, Coe BP, Levy R, Ko A, Lee C, Smith JD, Turner EH, Stanaway IB, Vernot B, Malig M, Baker C, Reilly B, Akey JM, Borenstein E, Rieder MJ, Nickerson DA, Bernier R, Shendure J, Eichler EE. Sporadic autism exomes reveal a highly interconnected protein network of de novo mutations. Nature. April 5, 2012.
Neale BM, Kou Y, Liu L, Ma’ayan A, Samocha KE, Sabo A, Lin CF, Stevens C, Wang LS, Makarov V, Polak P, Yoon S, Maguire J, Crawford EL, Campbell NG, Geller ET, Valladares O, Schafer C, Liu H, Zhao T, Cai G, Lihm J, Dannenfelser R, Jabado O, Peralta Z, Nagaswamy U, Muzny D, Reid JG, Newsham I, Wu Y, Lewis L, Han Y, Voight BF, Lim E, Rossin E, Kirby A, Flannick J, Fromer M, Shair K, Fennell T, Garimella K, Banks E, Poplin R, Gabriel S, DePristo M, Wimbish JR, Boone BE, Levy SE, Betancur C, Sunyaev S, Boerwinkle E, Buxbaum JD, Cook EH, Devlin B, Gibbs RA, Roeder K, Schellenberg GD, Sutcliffe JS, Daly MJ. Patterns and rates of exonic de novo mutations in autism spectrum disorders. Nature. April 5, 2012.
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Social Play and Autistic Spectrum Disorders: A Perspective on Theory, Implications and Educational Approaches

Social Play and Autistic Spectrum Disorders Sign In to gain access to subscriptions and/or My Tools. sign in icon Sign In | My Tools | Contact Us | HELP SJO banner Search all journals Advanced Search Go Search History Go Browse Journals Go Skip to main page content

Home OnlineFirst All Issues Subscribe RSS rss Email Alerts Search this journal Advanced Journal Search » Social Play and Autistic Spectrum Disorders A Perspective on Theory, Implications and Educational Approaches Rita Jordan

University of Birmingham, UK Abstract The article considers the nature of the presumed social play deficit in autistic spectrum disorders (ASDs). The nature of play and its typical development is outlined and discussed in relation to play development in ASDs. It is suggested that social play is a confluence of two strands of development that are affected in autism: social and emotional development, and the cognitive development of play. It is shown that social play develops in a transactional way and in ASDs initial social difficulties prevent the development of social interaction, with its role in eliciting and enriching spontaneous play. At the same time, cognitive and affective difficulties prevent the play of children with autism developing to the extent of attracting other children and being of a complexity from which social play might develop. This cycle of impoverished play opportunities for children with ASDs may be broken through direct teaching and there are encouraging models of teaching social play with some success.

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Synaptic Mutations Increase The Risk Of Autism Spectrum Disorders

Editor’s Choice
Academic Journal
Main Category: Autism
Also Included In: Neurology / Neuroscience;  Genetics
Article Date: 13 Feb 2012 – 10:00 PST

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A new study published in PLoS Genetics uses a combination of genetic and neurobiological approaches to confirm that synaptic mutations increase the risk of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and underlines the effect for modifier genes in these disorders.

ASDs, a heterogeneous group of neurodevelopmental disorders that have a complex inheritance pattern, appears before the age of three years and affects 1 in 100 children, with a higher risk for males than females. The disorder is characterized by impairments in social interaction and communication as well as by restricted and repetitive behavior. Scientists have identified several genes involved in ASD in those who have been diagnosed. However, understanding of their effects on neuronal functions and their interaction with other genetic variations has only recently been learnt.

In their new multi-center international study, Leblond and his collaborators detected mutations altering SHANK2, a gene that encodes a scaffolding protein located at synapses (contacts between neuronal cells). The researchers demonstrated that several of the observed mutations in patients decreased the number of synapses in neuronal cell cultures and a further genomic analysis of three patients with SHANK2 deletions revealed additional rare genomic imbalances that were previously linked to other neuropsychiatric disorders, which could act as modifier genes by modulating the disorder.

These findings highlight the significance of synaptic gene dysfunction in ASD and also underline the role for modifier genes, affirming a “multiple hit model” for ASD. Thomas Bourgeron, one of the study authors, concludes:

“A better knowledge of these genetic interactions will be necessary to understand the complex inheritance pattern of ASD.”

Written by Petra Rattue
Copyright: Medical News Today
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Five Types of Autism

There is more than one type of autism. Even though most people in society know only the umbrella terminology for the disability, it should be known that there are all types of autism, in fact that various degrees are a part of a spectrum. No one individual experiences autism in the same exact way. It is time society started acting like that. An individual is not only autistic because they have a learning disability. An individual should be looked at from a much deeper standpoint. Here’s a brief look at autism underneath the surface.

Asperger Syndrome

Asperger Syndrome is one of the few ASDs (autistic spectrum disorders) and is diagnosed by the absence of significant socialized tendencies. These characteristics include finding difficulty in social interaction and the limited and monotonous patterns of an individual’s behavior and what happens to keep their interests. Other symptoms can include clumsiness and abnormal use of jargon. Asperger differs from other ASDs because it seeks to preserve lingual and the development of cognitive capabilities. There is no known cause for the disorder and no treatment to cure the disorder.

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Kanner’s Syndrome

Kanner Syndrome, otherwise known as autism, is autism in its classic form. It is defined as a neural developmental disorder and is characterized by weakened communication and social interaction and the limitation and repetitiveness of behavior. Autism is usually diagnosed by the time the child hits the age of 3. It affects information the brain processes by changing the way nerve cells and synapses are allotted to connect and be organized. Just like Asperger Syndrome, Kanner Syndrome is one of the few ASDs.

PDD-NOS

The acronym PDD-NOS stands for Pervasive Developmental Disorder – Not Otherwise Specified and is defined as a pervasive developmental disorder and the disorder that completes the group of ASDs. With the diagnosis of PDD-NOS, an individual can qualify for some of the characteristics found in autism and Asperberger, but because they do not fit all of the criterion for the disorders, they become diagnosed with PDD-NOS. It is commonly referred to as atypical autism because although it is autism, it is very hard for it to fall in the category of autism.

Rett’s Syndrome

Rett syndrome is a developmental disorder of the neurological system that affects a major component of the central nervous system, known as “grey matter”. This is generally characterized by the outward appearance of small feet, hands, and a decrease in the rate at which an individual’s head is supposed to go. Hand movements are repetitive. Scoliosis, constipation, and the failure to grow are also common problems with Rett. It is very rare, but when it does happen, it usually only affects girls.

Childhood Disintegrative Disorder

Similar to Rett Syndrome, Childhood Disintegrative Disorder is also rare. Children who have it typically appear to be normal at birth, growth occurs when it is supposed to occur, no signs of anything potentially problematic. However, at age two or four, things take a shift. Instead of progressing, the child seems to regress. They will have no desire to interact with kids and have no interest in playing. Talking will either end completely or decrease in skill from what it previously had been.

 

If you have learning disabilities, consider changing your learning techniques by using NLP methodology.
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