Tag Archives: Adaptive Behavior

Question?: Pdd Autism

Mary asks…

Can you tell me about the medical condition Autism?

why do mostly boys get autism? can it become better as the child grows? can people with autism live normal lives when they grow up?

admin answers:

Hi there!

Autism is a spectrum, meaning that there are many “types” of autism, and the “severity” of the autistic traits can vary, from one individual to another. It’s considered a “disability” by the ADA, however, many people who have higher-functioning forms of autism feel that they do not have a disability, but are actually what’s called neurologically diverse. Aspergers is one form of autism which is actually a lot more common than one would think! Autism is not something which “goes away”, although certain characteristics can be managed more effectively with time. When a person “finds a way” to adapt to a shortcoming, the new way of dealing with that is called an “adaptive behavior.” There are also maladaptive behaviors. This is when a person comes up with a not-so-great way to adapt. Ii guess you could say it’s like a “defense mechanism” in some ways.

Boys have been diagnosed more frequently with autism in the past, although it has been found that girls “really can have autism”! For instance, I have Aspergers, which is on the spectrum, but most people who meet me have no idea. Boys have more “classic” behaviors than girls do, although in my opinion, this is because of many gender differences. You may have noticed that some more “assertive” women in the public eye are suspected (or do have) Aspergers. I think this is because their personality enables the manifestation of more “typical” behaviors. (Think: Madonna and Sharon Stone. Strong women.)

People with autism (especially the higher-functioning forms, such as HFA, PDD, and Aspergers) CAN have normal lives. Of course, if they have the opportunity for guidance when they are younger, they develop more adaptive (and fewer maladaptive) behaviors, so they fit into society generally well. Many people with AU (that’s the abbreviation for autism) follow their interests vocationally, and can be very successful in those things which they find interesting. When people with AU are creative, for instance, being in a creative field is ideal, because many creative people are individualistic.

A note about the higher end of the spectrum… A diagnostic criteria for Aspergers (for instance) is that that cognitive ability must not be dimished. (This is one reason why they give IQ tests when diagnosing.) So if you look at a group of people with Aspergers, you are 100% certain that they are all at least of average cognitive ability. You can’t say the same for the rest of the population. By definition, average intelligence is average because half is above, and half is below.) The point I’m making is that if you know someone with Aspergers, (a child, familiy member, someone at work) you can be sure that they are intelligent. This helps people who don’t have AU to give some additional credibility to ideas or suggestions. (People who don’t have AU are sometimes called “neurotypical”, or NT, when we talk about people with and without autism.)

People with autism and Aspergers are actually a wonderful societal resource. There can at times be stigma around those with Aspergers, when people don’t understand the little things that they do.

An example: Most people with Aspergers (AS) have some sort of uber-developed sense. For instance, hearing. (My Aspie son has said, “Mom, I can hear things very distinctly!”) For a person with AU who needs to concentrate, something like cubes being built in the same room, or a woodpecker outside the window can be a little distracting. A person with AS may request that they complete their task in a better setting until the cubes are built. In an office where they are not as accepting of neurological diversity, this could be falsely seen as “elitist” or something similar. It’s not, of course, it’s what that person temporarily needs in order to do the best work on the expected task. There are laws in place to prevent discrimination, although Aspergers in the workplace is one area that is a little behind-the-times with regard to diversity training…! These days, companies which have a high probability for Aspergers employees (like computer companies, engineering firms, architects, accounting, etc…) are seeking diversity training so that the company can benefit from a productively symbiotic relationship between Aspies and NTs.

Anyway, This might be a little more info than you were looking for, but I hope it’s helpful. (Explaining how to “build a watch” is a typical AS trait, and one I am actively striving to improve! 🙂

Feel free to ask more questions if you are interested. I have some of my sites listed if you would like to learn more.

Lorin Neikirk

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Question?: Schizophrenia Types

Steven asks…

Why do people have different types of schizophrenia?

Is it related to a person’s personality before he has schizophrenia? For instance, would a person be more likely to develop the paranoid subtype, if he had tendencies to be paranoid before he had schizophrenia?
1 second ago – 3 days left to answer.

admin answers:

Is this for an assignment? Haha.

Well I’m only a 17 year old psychology student but I can tell you what I know about schizophrenia. Schizophrenia literally means “split mind.” Disturbed thought is at the heart of this disorder, and it only occurs in about 1% of the population.

Those who develop paranoid schizophrenia usually experience abnormal or irrational thoughts before being diagnosed with schizophrenia, however, not so noticeably. A lot of times, schizophrenia doesn’t occur until later in life (even in their 20’s) so it is not apparent until this time. However, once this takes on it’s form, patients with paranoid schizophrenia have delusions or harassment and those of superior greatness. They believe they have “enemies” who are out to get them, and sometimes believe that they are famous or important figures. One man actually believed he was Hitler reincarnated and that everyone was out to get him because they knew about him, haha.

I hope I could help. 🙂

Also, subcategories. I almost forgot.

Catatonic schizophrenia – Disturbances in the proper functioning of motor abilities. Some patients may not be able to move at all for periods of time & remain still. Others go into a hyperactive state that prevents them from staying still.

Disorganized schizophrenia – Adaptive behavior is deteriorating. They are normally withdrawn from society, constant giggling, and lack of emotion.

Undifferentiated schizophrenia – People here are obviously schizophrenic but can’t be easily placed in any of the other categories.

CAUSES:
1. Genetics play a huge factor
2. Neurochemicals
3. Abnormal brain structure (enlarged brain ventricles)
4. Neurodevelopment Issues
5. Expressed emotion
6. Stress

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Outcome of young children with autism: Does the amount of intervention influence developmental trajectories?

Outcome of young children with autism Sign In to gain access to subscriptions and/or My Tools. sign in icon Sign In | My Tools | Contact Us | HELP SJO banner Search all journals Advanced Search Go Search History Go Browse Journals Go Skip to main page content

Home OnlineFirst All Issues Subscribe RSS rss Email Alerts Search this journal Advanced Journal Search » Outcome of young children with autism Does the amount of intervention influence developmental trajectories? Céline Darrou

Montpellier I University, Montpellier III University, France René Pry
Montpellier I University, Montpellier III University, France Eric Pernon
Montpellier I University, Montpellier III University, France Cécile Michelon
Montpellier I University, France Charles Aussilloux
Montpellier I University, Montpellier III University, France Amaria Baghdadli
Montpellier I University and Montpellier University, France, cent-ress-autisme{at}chu-montpellier.fr Abstract The study aims were to identify developmental trajectories of young children with autism and investigate their prognostic factors. The participants were 208 children, assessed first at the age of 5 years, followed longitudinally, and reassessed 3 years later. The children’s clinical characteristics and the interventions received were recorded. The results indicated two distinct outcome groups with more stability than change. When changes did occur, they pertained to symptom severity (which decreased) and speech level and adaptive behavior (which improved). A logistic regression analysis pointed out two main risk factors (symptom severity and speech level) and two main protection factors (communication skills and person-related cognition). Surprisingly, the amount of intervention (in terms of number of hours) was not related to outcome.

autism children intervention outcome risk factors © The Author(s), 2010. Add to CiteULikeCiteULike Add to ConnoteaConnotea Add to DeliciousDelicious Add to DiggDigg Add to FacebookFacebook Add to Google+Google+ Add to LinkedInLinkedIn Add to MendeleyMendeley Add to RedditReddit Add to StumbleUponStumbleUpon Add to TechnoratiTechnorati Add to TwitterTwitter What’s this?

« Previous | Next Article » Table of Contents This Article Published online before print December 13, 2010, doi: 10.1177/1362361310374156 Autism November 2010 vol. 14 no. 6 663-677 » Abstract Full Text (PDF) References Services Email this article to a colleague Alert me when this article is cited Alert me if a correction is posted Similar articles in this journal Similar articles in PubMed Download to citation manager Request Permissions Request Reprints Load patientINFORMation Citing Articles Load citing article information Citing articles via Scopus Citing articles via Web of Science Citing articles via Google Scholar Google Scholar Articles by Darrou, C. Articles by Baghdadli, A. Search for related content PubMed PubMed citation Articles by Darrou, C. Articles by Baghdadli, A. Related Content Load related web page information Share Add to CiteULikeCiteULike Add to ConnoteaConnotea Add to DeliciousDelicious Add to DiggDigg Add to FacebookFacebook Add to Google+Google+ Add to LinkedInLinkedIn Add to MendeleyMendeley Add to RedditReddit Add to StumbleUponStumbleUpon Add to TechnoratiTechnorati Add to TwitterTwitter What’s this?

Current Issue January 2012, 16 (1) Current Issue Alert me to new issues of Autism Submit a ManuscriptSubmit a Manuscript Free Sample CopyFree Sample Copy Email AlertsEmail Alerts Rss FeedsRSS feed More about this journal About the Journal Editorial Board Manuscript Submission Abstracting/Indexing Subscribe Account Manager Recommend to Library Advertising Reprints Permissions society image The National Autistic Society Most Most Read Social StoriesTM to improve social skills in children with autism spectrum disorder: A systematic review Peer interaction patterns among adolescents with autistic spectrum disorders (ASDs) in mainstream school settings Emotional, motivational and interpersonal responsiveness of children with autism in improvisational music therapy Evidence-Based Practices and Autism Inclusion for toddlers with autism spectrum disorders: The first ten years of a community program » View all Most Read articles Most Cited Diagnosis in Autism: A Survey of Over 1200 Patients in the UK The Prevalence of Anxiety and Mood Problems among Children with Autism and Asperger Syndrome Anxiety in High-Functioning Children with Autism The CAST (Childhood Asperger Syndrome Test): Preliminary Development of a UK Screen for Mainstream Primary-School-Age Children Outcome in Adult Life for more Able Individuals with Autism or Asperger Syndrome » View all Most Cited articles HOME ALL ISSUES FEEDBACK SUBSCRIBE RSS rss EMAIL ALERTS HELP Copyright © 2012 by The National Autistic Society, SAGE Publications Print ISSN: 1362-3613 Online ISSN: 1461-7005

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Inclusion for toddlers with autism spectrum disorders: The first ten years of a community program

Inclusion for toddlers with autism spectrum disorders Sign In to gain access to subscriptions and/or My Tools. sign in icon Sign In | My Tools | Contact Us | HELP SJO banner Search all journals Advanced Search Go Search History Go Browse Journals Go Skip to main page content

Home OnlineFirst All Issues Subscribe RSS rss Email Alerts Search this journal Advanced Journal Search » Inclusion for toddlers with autism spectrum disorders The first ten years of a community program Aubyn C. Stahmer

University of California,San Diego, and Rady Children’s Hospital, San Diego, California, astahmer{at}casrc.org Natacha Akshoomoff
University of California, San Diego, and Rady Children’s Hospital, San Diego, California Allison B. Cunningham
University of California, San Diego Abstract The present quasi-experimental study examines the outcomes for a group of 102 children diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder at age 2 who attended an inclusive toddler program (described by Stahmer and Ingersoll, 2004) until age 3. Outcomes on standardized developmental assessments indicate significant improvement, with large effect sizes, in developmental level, adaptive behavior and communication. Thirty-one of the children (31%) were functioning in the typically developing range when they exited the program at age 3, after an average of 8 months of intervention. Predictors of positive outcomes included length of time in the program, level of words and gestures use at entry and higher externalizing and lower internalizing behavior CBCL scores at entry. Implications for serving toddlers with autism in inclusive settings and suggestions for future research directions are discussed.

autism spectrum disorders community program early intervention © The Author(s), 2011. Add to CiteULikeCiteULike Add to ConnoteaConnotea Add to DeliciousDelicious Add to DiggDigg Add to FacebookFacebook Add to Google+Google+ Add to LinkedInLinkedIn Add to MendeleyMendeley Add to RedditReddit Add to StumbleUponStumbleUpon Add to TechnoratiTechnorati Add to TwitterTwitter What’s this?

« Previous | Next Article » Table of Contents This Article Published online before print April 12, 2011, doi: 10.1177/1362361310392253 Autism September 2011 vol. 15 no. 5 625-641 » Abstract Full Text (PDF) Podcast All Versions of this Article: current version image indicatorVersion of Record – Oct 18, 2011 1362361310392253v1 – Apr 12, 2011 What’s this? References Services Email this article to a colleague Alert me when this article is cited Alert me if a correction is posted Similar articles in this journal Similar articles in PubMed Download to citation manager Request Permissions Request Reprints Load patientINFORMation Citing Articles Load citing article information Citing articles via Scopus Citing articles via Web of Science Google Scholar Articles by Stahmer, A. C. Articles by Cunningham, A. B. Search for related content PubMed PubMed citation Articles by Stahmer, A. C. Articles by Cunningham, A. B. Related Content Load related web page information Share Add to CiteULikeCiteULike Add to ConnoteaConnotea Add to DeliciousDelicious Add to DiggDigg Add to FacebookFacebook Add to Google+Google+ Add to LinkedInLinkedIn Add to MendeleyMendeley Add to RedditReddit Add to StumbleUponStumbleUpon Add to TechnoratiTechnorati Add to TwitterTwitter What’s this?

Current Issue January 2012, 16 (1) Current Issue Alert me to new issues of Autism Submit a ManuscriptSubmit a Manuscript Free Sample CopyFree Sample Copy Email AlertsEmail Alerts Rss FeedsRSS feed More about this journal About the Journal Editorial Board Manuscript Submission Abstracting/Indexing Subscribe Account Manager Recommend to Library Advertising Reprints Permissions society image The National Autistic Society Most Most Read Social StoriesTM to improve social skills in children with autism spectrum disorder: A systematic review Peer interaction patterns among adolescents with autistic spectrum disorders (ASDs) in mainstream school settings Emotional, motivational and interpersonal responsiveness of children with autism in improvisational music therapy Evidence-Based Practices and Autism Inclusion for toddlers with autism spectrum disorders: The first ten years of a community program » View all Most Read articles Most Cited Diagnosis in Autism: A Survey of Over 1200 Patients in the UK The Prevalence of Anxiety and Mood Problems among Children with Autism and Asperger Syndrome Anxiety in High-Functioning Children with Autism The CAST (Childhood Asperger Syndrome Test): Preliminary Development of a UK Screen for Mainstream Primary-School-Age Children Outcome in Adult Life for more Able Individuals with Autism or Asperger Syndrome » View all Most Cited articles HOME ALL ISSUES FEEDBACK SUBSCRIBE RSS rss EMAIL ALERTS HELP Copyright © 2012 by The National Autistic Society, SAGE Publications Print ISSN: 1362-3613 Online ISSN: 1461-7005

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Criteria for Asperger Syndrome

Asperger syndrome is a neurobiological illness that is part of a set of conditions called autism spectrum disorders. The name “autism spectrum” refers to progressive disabilities that comprise autism as well as other illnesses with comparable characteristics.

What it is to know with Asperger Syndrome?

Asperger Syndrome can be known and detected in many ways. One major criterion is the patient’s qualitative impairment in social interaction. This is revealed by the use of multiple nonverbal behaviors such as eye-to-eye contact, facial expressions, body postures, and gestures to control social interaction. Other patients suffering in this disorder also fail to cultivate peer relationships fitting to their developmental levels. They also have lack of natural seeking to share enjoyment, interests, or achievements with other people and they also have the lack of social or emotional reciprocity.


How to identify if a person has Asperger Syndrome?

* Another major criterion to identify Asperger syndrome is the patient’s limited repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior, likes, and activities.

* Patients have encompassing obsession with stereotyped and restricted patterns of interests that is abnormal in intensity and/ or in focus.

* They also have stereotyped and repetitive motor mannerisms like hand or finger twisting and flapping and whole body complex movements.

* They also have persistent obsession with parts of objects and are apparently adherent to specific, non-functional routines.

* The Disorder also causes clinically major impairment in the community, in work and in other important areas of functioning. However, there is no delay in language of children with asperger syndrome. In example, two year olds use single words to communicate while 3 year-old use communicative phrases.

* There is also no setback in the progress of self-help abilities, adaptive behavior, and curiosity about the surroundings in childhood.

These criteria sounds like there’s a significant difference in diagnosis between Asperger syndrome and High-functioning Autism, but the truth is, in the words of Asperger syndrome expert Dr. Tony Attwood, “the difference between them is mostly in the spelling.”

This is mainly the situation as children grow up and differentiations in language ability at the age of three become extraneous. When children with Asperger Syndrome or high-functioning autism become teenagers, those distinctions have basically disappeared, making it very hard to differentiate amid the two diagnoses.

Help your Asperger child by giving them the support and love that they need!

Dr. John E. Neyman, Jr.Christian CounselorDr. John has reared 3 children, Philip, Laura, and Matthew. Dr. John has been teaching families for the last 30 years. He is a family coach that specializes in parenting. Dr. John’s motto is “Empowering parents to transform their homes.” Dr. John was a pastor for 25 years.Dr. John has been serving as a Counselor/therapist for 30 years. He is currently a Behavior Specialist Consultant and Mobile Therapist in Western PA. Dr. John also is the director /Owner of the Renewed Life Counseling Center. Dr. John is a bestselling author entitled Wake up Live the Life You love: Success and Wake up Live the Life You Love: Freedom.Dr. John has developed a strategy that parents are able to use immediately, and effectively. It is entitled Power moments with Your Children. It takes less than 1 minute to put a strategy into place. Dr. John holds degrees from Liberty University and Rochville University.Dr. John has a passion to teach principles that transforms lives. He has spoken to audiences from 4 to 4 thousand. Dr. John’s teachings are practical, pointed, and powerful.
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Types of Mental Retardation

Down’s syndrome occurs when an extra chromosome in the twenty-first pair is found. While there is no known reason why this occurs, and either parent may contribute the extra chromosome, it is known that the chance of giving birth to a Down’s child increases with the age of the mother. Four other chromosome defects produce recognizable syndromes. The cat-cry syndrome results from a missing part of the fifth chromosome. Due to vocal chord abnormalities the infant gives a characteristic cat cry. Severe retardation and numerous other physical complications are present. Tuberous sclerosis is a disease manifested by severe mental retardation, seizures, and a peculiar skin condition characterized by butterfly-shaped reddish-yellow tumors, usually on the cheeks alongside the nose. Disorders of protein and amino acid metabolism include the much researched phenylketonuria (PKU). PKU is the inability of the body to oxidize the amino acid phenylalanine to tyrosine. Additionally to triplet replicate expansion, genetic anticipation could be brought on by bias of ascertainment, which happens when a slight or variably mentioned condition very first diagnosed in grandchildren from the three generation pedigree is then very easily recognized in siblings from the grandchildren who are accessible for examination and testing. Normal intelligence is placed at an IQ of 100. Persons scoring below 70 IQ, two standard deviations below the mean, are considered to be mentally retarded. Psychological assessment, which can be done at any age, is designed to assess the intellectual and social adaptation of an individual. The assessment of brain damage may be done with the Reitan Battery or the Luria. The Bender-Gestalt and the Benton Visual Retention tests are commonly used as an initial screening of brain damage. Adaptive behavior refers to how well an individual is able to cope with life expectations. Independent functioning, personal responsibility, and social responsibility are the three major facets of adaptive behavior. A neurodevelopmental disorder is defined as an impairment of the growth and development of the central nervous system. It effects the child’s brain function in controlling emotion, learning ability and memory as well as social interaction. Children with Asperger syndrome has no problem with speech development, but have very poor social and communication skills. Auditory processing disorder is defined as damaging of the neurological structures and pathways of sound perception, therefore children with this disorder are able to hear sounds but have trouble to interpret what they hear. The first type of epilepsy is called “Symptomatic Partial”. While this type is observed in individuals of all age groups, when an individual develops this medical condition as an adult, it is the most commonly diagnosed type. Children that are anywhere from age five to age eight are typically diagnosed with the type of epilepsy known as “Idiopathic Partial”. Many medical professionals have another name for this specific form of epilepsy. It’s very important to have a healthy diet when you are pregnant. The normal development and health of your baby depends on it. All the dietitians in the world recommend a varied diet for pregnant women. The Blood Type Diet sounds interesting, and it became “trendy”, even among Hollywood stars. This may be one of the reasons why there are women who are searching for a Blood Type And Pregnancy Diet.
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