I realize this has not been updating. I’m not sure why. I will get to work on it over the weekend, (I hope)
I realize this has not been updating. I’m not sure why. I will get to work on it over the weekend, (I hope)
I finally have some time to scour the news for new health and Autism Issues to be able to post here. So I will be able to do that.
Did you know that I have had several items listed here on the Autismblog.us asking for donations. We do need some help. This blog costs a bundle to keep going as well as https://TheAutismZone.com . They are all together. So how many people have donated to this cause? No one from here. SO I think in the future I am going to change this to a membership site where you have to subscribe to read all our articles. All this in one neat place to get everything you want. I just have not decided the monthly dues? Five dollars or twenty five dollars? What do you think?
Recently HOTDVDSHOP has released an excellent product — America’s Next Top Model Seasons 1-15 DVD Boxset. Since its release, this product has become the hottest item. America’s Next Top Model is really a great show, isn’t it? Do you love those champions? And do you love any other competitors?
Not all the champions were well liked by the wide audience, but those competitors who got beaten because of some kinds of shortage or little faults, with their unique personalities, appearances and model-gift, they made a strong impression on the audience, and generally these girls went a better and farther road. These girls are also the “champions”! How do you like the following “champions”?
Heather Kuzmich — the Fifth in Season 9
Heather suffers from Asperger syndrome, so she does not easily mix with others. And Asperger syndrome makes her movement a little awkward.
When she was 15 years old, Heather was diagnosed with Asperger and this was the very time when his father passed away. She said that those days were the the most difficult period of her life. Heather is the student of Art Department and her major is Game Design.
Although Heather ended in the fifth place, she won CoverGirl of the Week award in the episode after she got eliminated, which showed her popularity in the Uited States. Heather is the third competitor after A.J. Stewart and Toccara Jones, who was knocked out but still became the winner of CoverGirl of The Week, and she was also the first competitor who won the CoverGirl of The Week award the week after she was eliminated.
Heather won in three challenges with the first winning in episode 6 — photo shoot challenge. The prize was shooting for Carol’s Daughter, directed by Mary J. Blige. Her second winning got her to be chosen by Enrique Iglesias and she got the special part in the music video of Tired of Being Sorry. The third winning was in the martial art challenge in Shanghai, China, which got her 4,000 Yuan for shopping.
Allison Harvard — the First Runner-up in Season 12
Allison is the first runner-up of America’s Next Top Model Season 12. She is the first runner-up who has the best development momentum now and she gets many runway works and high level photo shoots; as she specializes in Art, she does not develop in commercial advertisement. Allison is the first runner-up who wins four honors as the most perfect, the most powerful, making biggest improvements and the most popular in ANTM history. She could control her body skillfully and she potentiality to be a top model. Nigel appreciated Allison’s refinement, charm and sexy showing in the swimsuit photos and nest photos; even Tyra thought she could be a real top model during those weeks. All people appreciated Allison’s attitude, expression and movement, which were perfectly. Her progress made people joyful.
Laura Kirkpatrick — the First Runner-up in Season 13
Laura is the sweet heart in America’s Next Top Model. She’s the popular competitor and the Best Personality too. With her unique appearance, rural temperament and lovely personality, Laura would be the new shinning star in the Model world.
Just have a look at the America’s Next Top Model here: http://hotdvdshop.com/americas-next-top-model-seasons-115-dvd-boxset-p-572.html
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We are living in societies, where we need to interact and communicate with people. We have certain responsibilities towards our society. You will see that there are many people, who are suffering from different kinds of diseases and are living extremely painful lives. You will see that diseases like cancer, HIV Aids and a number of such horrifying diseases have brought in darkness, in the lives of people. Similarly, the misery through which autism patients are going through has really brought people in the gloomy state of their lives. Autism is one of those diseases, through which children are suffering since many years. The symptoms of this disease start to become visible, when the child reaches at the age of 2 to 3 years old. Doctors have not been able to know any kind of permanent treatment for this disease, but they have been giving certain kind of therapies and medications, which helps in keeping this disease under control.
The treatment for autism is very expensive. Autism patients, who belong from well-off families, can afford to undergo from autism treatments, but poor patients cannot afford to bear such expenses. For all such patients, many charitable organizations are contributing their generous efforts. These organizations are using different ways of collecting and generating funds. Selling of fundraising merchandises is one of the most successful ways of collecting donations and funds from a larger segment of the society. Ribbons of different colors are being attached to different kinds of accessories and garments, which highlight the fundraising for specific causes. Autism ribbons are used to highlight the cause of raising funds for autism and for the patients of asperger syndrome.
All those people, who want to donate money, in order to help the patients of autism and asperger syndrome, they can purchase different things like bracelets and bangles, which have autism ribbon attached to them or engraved or can also purchase autism magnets, which they can use on their refrigerators or in cars, which will help in spreading awareness regarding to autism ribbons.
Autism awareness ribbon has acted perfectly in making people aware of their responsibilities towards their societies. Now more and more people are pushing those things, which come with autism ribbons attached to them. The aim of selling fundraising merchandises is to say thanks to those people, who donate money to charities, which is utilized in the treatment of patients, suffering from different diseases. There are thought provoking words printed on beautiful bracelets and bangles, which say thanks, help, love and care. These words leave an unmemorable impression on the hearts of the people, who donate money and in this way they keep themselves attached with such noble causes and activities. If you also want to show humane and generous behavior, towards autism and asperger syndrome patients, then you must purchase those items, which have autism ribbons imprinted or attached with them. In this way you will get to live with a feeling of satisfaction and contentment, for you have also helped the needy segment of the society.
http://www.fundraisingforacause.com is a fundraising organization for different causes, help us to spread awareness in the world with autism ribbons and autism awareness ribbon. We hope you have enjoyed this article.
The interaction and community skills of the person is affected life long by this disease. Comparing with other children the children with autism behave differently. Mostly the children have problem in speaking, as a result the child is not able to express his feelings in proper words.
The parent of an autistic child could understand this easily, rather than the people to know the real fact. Reality is unknown for them. So some important things that will give them a clear understanding is given here.
There are many theories which gives the possible cause of autism. Some think this is caused by the mercury which are in the vaccines given to infants. Whilst few states that it is due to parent’s age. But the more appropriate theory is that autism is because of genetic and environmental factors.
Autism is also called as Autism Spectrum Disorder. Because few are non-verbal and mentally retarded whilst few are verbal and bright. There are varied range of symptoms in different children with autism. Social communication is the main symptom seen in most of the patients. They fail to maintain good eye contact, converse properly with others, or have one’s perspective etc.
Autism and Asperger Syndrome have some similarities. Both cases have problems which are mostly common. In Autism, child’s speech is delayed while in Asperger Syndrome the speech develops at appropriate age and time. In other words, the child with Asperger Syndrome is verbal and bright.
It is a common fact that every individual is different from another. Similarly, each autism child differs from other. Some may speak well while other may be silent. Some may be affected physically with GIT problems, sensory problems, difficulty in sleep, etc, whereas some have problem in social communication. Even if the disease is the same, the symptoms they have varies in each individual.
Yet autism remains without proper cure though the medical field has great advancement. Though there a different ways by which their skills can be improved they still cannot remain as normal children. Some treatments for autism are behavioral, biomedical, sensory, developmental or even arts-based. Depending upon the child, certain treatments will be more successful than others.
It is a common fact that autism is a life long disease. The symptoms may become mild with proper timely interventions. Without depending others, they can try to do their activities of daily living. The communication skill can also be increased.
If one gets autism, the whole family seems to be in a stressed situation. They have to withstand many adverse conditions. So at this time, the support of relatives and friends is important. By this way they can overcome this situation. By this they can be motivated to overcome this disease.
Also gather more details on autism symptoms and causes of autism.
When the problem comes in the form of difficulty in communication and interaction with others although the child who develops autism develops this even till their adulthood more emphasis is given to boys because they are likely to have autism than girls.
Autism is an ubiquitous disorder. The rate of incidence of autism is increasing 10-17% per year in the U.S. The classical type of autism are: classic autism, asperger syndrome, Rett’s Syndrome. The causes of autism are given to the genetic origin, although social factors and surrounding environment appears to play a major role in developing autistic behavior in children.
Some symptoms of autism in child may include the following: like to stay/play alone, frequent behavioral out bursts, does not like to have eye-to-eye contact self-inflicting tendency, exaggerated movements, may seem unresponsiveness to others. The way an autistic child behaves depends on his surroundings as well. A precise diagnose of autism is hard to give. Early signs of autism may include decrease in activity level, abnormal pattern of speech, sleeplessness.
The child with autism may show little intellectual level than children of his age. The signs of autism are the following: withdrawn difficulty in social interaction, exaggerated behavior and movements, flat facial expression, voice and language disability, self-inflicting tendency, aggressive behavior, sleeplessness. No drugs are available to treat autism. Autism and asperger syndrome are similar as language and behavior skills. People with asperger syndrome have a normal intellectual level and may also exhibit exceptional skills as well. They do not have learning disabilities, but they have difficulty in social interaction, perceiving facial expressions.
Even children with autism present disabilities in their behavior they are treated like everybody.
More informations about autism causes or about child autism can be found by visiting http://www.autism-info-center.com/
More informations about autism causes or about child autism can be found by visiting http://www.autism-info-center.com/
It is known there is no specific diagnostic test for Autism Spectrum Disorder, and the best way to get a diagnosis is to make a multi-disciplinary evaluation.
A psychologist or psychiatrist experienced with Autism Spectrum Disorders can make a diagnose for adults, and in what concerns children, they must be tested by a number of professionals, which will provide the needed information to make decisions about program and treatment approaches.
It was seen that the age of diagnosis ranges, depending on the circumstances from approximately 18 months through to adulthood.
Autism Spectrum Disorder deals with several labels, for example at an end of the spectrum there can be diagnoses like “Asperger Syndrome”, “High Functioning Autism” and “PDD-NOS”, and at the other end, we can find labels like “Autism”, “Classic Autism” and “Kanner Autism”. Several labels place people at different points of the spectrum.
We can say that the term Autism Spectrum Disorder is used because there is a great variation from person to person, which depends on the severity and combination of each area of impairment. It is known that together with Autism Spectrum Disorder may exist also other conditions or disorders, like speech and language disorders, anxiety and depression, intellectual disability, epilepsy, attention disorders, Tourette Syndrome and Down Syndrome.
Usually, before the age of 3, in autism, clearly appear severe and sustained impairments in the social and communication areas. The child is observed as being different than other children, he is anxious, responds unusually to many different stimuli, has poor attention and motivation, and speech can be delayed or largely absent. The child can also have a range of ritualistic behaviours, like hand flapping, finger gazing or toe walking. It was seen that the child or adult with autism can be also intellectually disabled.
We can mention a loosely used term to describe a child or adult who meets the criteria for a diagnosis of Autism, but is not as severely affected as the more classically autistic person-High Functioning Autism.
Asperger Syndrome deals with severe and sustained social impairments, but the impairments in the language and communication area aren’t so severe. The speech develops within the normal age range, but effectively communication is impaired.
It was seen that the impairments become more evident as the child reaches pre-school and school age, being more subtle in the very young child.
There can also be given a diagnosis for children who present with some of the characteristics of either Autism or Asperger Syndrome, but not severe enough for a diagnosis of either of these conditions and this is Pervasive Developmental Disorder – Not Otherwise Specified.
More informations about autism causes or about autism symptoms can be found by visiting http://www.autism-info-center.com/
More informations about autism causes or about autism symptoms can be found by visiting http://www.autism-info-center.com/
Autism Speaks offers a straightforward definition of Autism as “a complex brain disorder that inhibits a person’s ability to communicate and develop social relationships, and is often accompanied by extreme behavioral challenges.”
Although each individual exhibits varying forms of Autism (hence the “spectrum” of Autistic diagnoses), some groups of symptoms and behaviors are commonly associated with the disease. Catherine Lord, Director of the University of Michigan Autism and Communication Disorders Center, offers the following answers about Autism Spectrum diagnoses:
ASDs are defined by difficulty in three areas of behaviors: 1) reciprocal social interaction, 2) communication and 3) repetition and insistence on sameness. Exactly how an individual is impacted across these three areas varies greatly. There is no one behavior that is present in all individuals with ASDs or that would rule out ASDs in every person. Many, but not all, individuals with ASD have language delays. Some individuals with ASD, but not all, have lifelong language disorders. Some, but not all, individuals with ASD also have mental retardation that affects development of nonverbal problem-solving, everyday self-care (e.g., dressing; academics) and language.
Within the category of Autism Spectrum Disorder (sometimes known as Pervasive Developmental Disorders or PDD), there are a number of subtypes that are associated with different levels of severity in different areas.
Autism is the disorder that has received the most study and has been recognized for the longest time. It is defined by the presence of difficulties in each of the three areas listed above (social deficits, communication problems and repetitive or restricted behaviors), with onset in at least one area by age 3 years. It may or may not be associated with language delays or mental retardation.
Asperger Syndrome is a form of ASD that is often identified later (e.g., after age 3, usually after age 5) and is associated with the social symptoms of autism and some repetitive interests or behaviors, but not with language delay or mental retardation. Many parents and professionals use this term with older and/or more verbally fluent individuals with autism because they feel it is less stigmatizing.
Rett Syndrome and Child Disintegrative Disorder are both very rare, severe forms of ASD that have particular patterns of onset, and, in the case of Rett Syndrome, a specific genetic basis.
Pervasive Developmental Disorder – Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS) is a form of ASD used to describe individuals who meet criteria for autism in terms of social difficulties but not in both communication and restricted, repetitive behaviors. It can also be used for children who do not have clearly defined difficulties under age 3 or later. This term is often used by professionals when they are not quite sure of a diagnosis or when the symptoms are mild. Several epidemiological studies have reported that as many or more children have PDD-NOS or less clear symptoms as have classic autism. The difficulties of children and adults with Asperger Syndrome or PDD-NOS are similar, and milder than those of individuals with autism, suggesting that these distinctions are fairly arbitrary and should not be used to limit services or benefits.
Mari D. is a beginning Yoga student at the studio where I teach and work as the studio assistant. I received a phone call from her asking about private Yoga classes for her son, Finn, who had been diagnosed years earlier with PDD. Later, I received a book, beautifully and lovingly created for teachers and caregivers, all about Finn and his situation, his development, diagnosis, and likes and dislikes. In speaking further with Mari, she shared that the family had moved to Seattle from Houston in order for Finn to participate in therapeutic programs offered in this area that they could not find in Houston.
I was inspired by his parents’ dedication to giving Finn every opportunity to thrive and develop into the bright and lovely boy he naturally is.
Mari had heard that Yoga was an appropriate therapy for ASD. The sole text I was able to locate on Yoga and ASD is an inspiring book about the journey of Yoga practicing mother and her son who was diagnosed with Asperger Syndrome, Yoga for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Step-by-Step Guide for Parents and Caregivers by Dion E. Betts and Stacey W. Betts.
The Betts explain about Yoga and ASDs in the introduction to their book:
The physical symptoms of ASDs, while seemingly slight, may drastically impair wellbeing and health. These children need an appropriate and enjoyable physical program. The practice of yoga assists individuals with both strength and balance. The poses improve strength in the large muscles of the body and may increase the tone of the muscles. Yoga poses may also help to improve balance by helping your child become aware of the placement of his or her legs and feet in relations to the rest of the body. The resulting muscle strength and balance control may improve coordination. When the poses are practiced consistently, your child will feel more comfortable in his or her body, which can carry over into other areas of their life.
Another prevalent feature of children with ASDs is that they have many sensory issues. For example, they are often extremely sensitive to bright lights. These children also cannot tolerate loud noise. The taste, texture, and smell of food may present a problem to them . . . Some children, when presented with such stimuli, become upset and agitated. This behavior may cause your child’s peers to view him or her as different. These behaviors may lead to social isolation and feelings of loneliness.
Yoga may address and decrease these sensory problems in several ways. First, the physical practice of yoga soothes the nervous system. Yoga provides poses of flowing movements that allow energy to be released from the body. As your child goes through the movements of the yoga program, his or her body will become soothed and anxiety will lessen. By practicing poses, an over burdened sensory system is calmed and quieted. Moreover, the physical poses offer a non-competitive physical activity that releases pent-up energy. By practicing yoga, your child will have a respite from his or her usual experience of a sensory overloaded body.
Practicing yoga may help a child feel more at peace with his or her body. Once your child is calmer and more focused, he or she may be able to concentrate better on learning social skills.
For more information please log on to:http://www.ayurvedaacademy.comorhttp://www.ayurvedaonline.com
The term “autism” is a generalized term which falls inside a larger medical category oftentimes called “the 5 Pervasive Development Disorders”. Autism is the most common type of development disorder and can appear in a range of types and severity of condition. This has led to the term “Autism Spectrum Disorder” which can be often used to identify and discuss the differing types of autism. What this implies is that someone diagnosed as having autism will have one of several different types of autism which have features that are comparable in some respects and different in others.
Inside the Autism Spectrum Disorder there exists four subcategories of autism which are Asperger Syndrome, Rett Syndrome, Childhood Disintegrative Disorder and Pervasive Development Disorder Not Otherwise Specified or “PDD-NOS”. Seeing as each of these are types of autism they all share some general autism traits.
It is generally acknowledged that autism is related to the brain or what some are now calling “mindblindness”. At some point between birth and the first two-and-a-half years of age there’s a serious development problem inside the brain that prevents parts of the brain from functioning as one. As the child gets older they find it more and more difficult to communicate and connect to other people around them in what we deem a normal and socially acceptable manner. Dependant upon how bad the brain disorder was early on in life will determine how serious the type of autism is when the child becomes older.
What we have discussed thus far has told us that all types of autism are linked to a condition within the brain. Now we will look at how each of the types of autism are different.
1. Asperger Syndrome (AS)
indicated by impaired speech and communication skills
restrictive patterns in the manner the individual behaves and thinks
Children with Asperger Syndrome often exhibit very obsessive behavior towards a single subject or topic and refuse to focus on anything else. This makes it very difficult for them to socialize with others, especially their peer group and they find it hard to talk and interact normally. Also very common is delayed learning when it comes to motor skills like riding a bike, being able to catch a ball or even climbing on playground equipment. The child is usually thought of as being clumsy and inept.
2. Rett Syndrome
symptoms tend to be noticed earlier on in a child’s life than other types of autism
generally is encountered only in girls and unexpectedly begins to surface some six to eighteen months after a normal infant development pattern
A baby with Rett Syndrome exhibits a slow down or oftentimes even a loss of customary development skills that were already developed before Rett Syndrome. Added signs of this infant disorder may include problems learning to walk, increased delay in learning basic motor skills and often there is a lessening in skull growth rate.
3. Childhood Disintegrative Disorder (CDD)
less common type of autism
occurs later than other types of autism, not until around age 3 or four
frequently a dramatic loss of social, communication and other kinds of skills
A child afflicted with CDD generally has demonstrated normal development well beyond that phase where other types of autism may become evident. Everything appears fine, until unexpectedly around the ages of 3 or 4 the child in a short time begins to have difficulty speaking normally, doing social activities with others and begins to fall behind in normal skill development for their age group. In very severe cases this may even lead to mental retardation.
4. Pervasive Development Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS)
generally the mildest type of autism and is usually diagnosed around 4 years old
core features are problems with social interaction and communication
A child with PDD-NOS enjoys the company of other people but has a difficult time reacting appropriately and making genuine connections with their friends. For example they find it difficult to relate to the feelings of others, and as such would not know how to appriopriately react if someone is laughing or crying. Areas of difficulty with respect to communicating with other people include a restricted vocabulary, repetitive language, narrow interests and poor nonverbal communication.
As you can see the definition of autism just isn’t so simple as many people presume it to be. Differing autism features have given rise to a number of different types of autism that will impinge on children and adults in a wide range of ways, often depending upon how severe the condition is for that person.
It is extremely important to understand that the above facts about autism, together with the types of autism discussed, are merely general guidelines and are in no way intended to be a medical diagnosis. If you believe that your son or daughter may have autism, then please seek out medical advice from a physician.
Take action now to find out more about what is autism disorder and learn to help your child and yourself as a concerned parent or an adult dealing with autism. Visit our website now to learn more about the types of autism and much more. Articles on autism, videos and links to other resources including books on autism. Let us help you as we have already helped hundreds of other concerned parents with autistic children as well as adults with autism .
Every parent has hopes and dreams for their children and all parents want their kids to
be the best and even though no one is ever perfect, they would still try to make them
perfect, But all this may be shattered once this little boy or girl gets diagnosed with
one of the most alarming disorders in the world of childhood disorders which is not
only a serious disability; but is also a bewildering one this disorder is called Autism.
Autism Spectrum Disorder
B. Why Autism?
there were six childhood psychological disorders other then autism that any person would find very interesting to do a research about, but autism is found to be one of the most dangerous and confusing childhood disorder any parent can find also learning a bit about autism in Oman made it very important to talk and explain this disorder to Omani parents and the Omani community as a whole.
To spread awareness on the Autistic Spectrum Disorder in Oman and this will have a great and positive impact on the treatment of the Omani children that were diagnosed with Autism.
To give the reader a clear and detailed information on the Autistic Spectrum Disorder.
To spread awareness on the Autistic Spectrum Disorder to the Omani people in specific.
E. Limits and Difficulties:
The time given before the dead-line was not enough.
References like books, articles, etc… Related to the subject were very limited.
The methods used to complete this report included reading from different sources including: Books, Magazines, and Web sites also visiting The Muscat Autism Center was very helpful.
Autism Spectrum Disorder
The Root of the word “Autism:
The word Autism comes or drives from the Greek word “Auto” which means self, and the adjective word “Autistic” literally means alone.
In the world of psychology and psychiatry autism or Autistic Spectrum Disorder is defined as:
A life-long brain disorder that is normally diagnosed in early childhood.
A disorder that causes kids to experience the world differently from the way most other kids do.
A complex developmental disability that typically appears during the first three years of life and affects a person’s ability to communicate and interact with others.
The history of Autism:
The word “Autism” was first used in 1943 by a psychiatric and physician called Leo Kanner who wrote a paper on “Autistic Disturbance of Attitude contact ” for a journal called: nervous child” which does not exist anymore, Dr. Leo wrote that article after conducting a research on 11 children of ages between two to eight years old who had similar symptoms which included difficulties communicating with others, difficulties interacting with others, and having unusual interests. Before the publication of that article children with the previous symptoms were labeled as “schizophrenic”. (Kocgel & Lazebnik)
Types of Autism
There are many types of autism some are known while others are not known, but there are 5 main types that most researchers agree with, which are:
1) Classic Autism:
This type can be recognized before the age of 3 years, but can be diagnosed later in life. Children diagnosed with classic autism show lack of eye to eye contact, lack of affection or emotional contact with others, difficulty to socialize and interact with others, intense wish for sameness in routine, and develop language late or not at all.
Children diagnosed with Classic autism also show high levels of Visio -spatial skills* but major difficulties in other areas.
2) Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) which includes:
A) Aspergers Syndrome:
Is a form of autism in which speech development and IQ are normal, but in which social disabilities can be compounded by depression and mental health problems . This syndrome is a higher functioning disorder than classic autism and can range from mild to saver. A child diagnosed with Aspergers Syndrome can exhibit a number of characteristics, show deficiencies in social skills and have difficulties with transition or change ( they compulsively stick to rituals and any changes in their routine can upset them), they also find it difficult to read body language and to determine the proper body space.
Some of the kids that were diagnosed with Aspergers Syndrome have shown reduced sensitivity to pain & an increased sensitivity to bright light and loud noises.
*Visual Spatial Learners have a very wide imagination, that helps them make a whole movie just by reading something, that is because they can draw a picture in their mind about anything they read or hear.
B) Rett Syndrome or Rex Syndrome:
This is a neurological & developmental disorder that is marked by poor head growth. Some doctors claim that Rett or Rex Syndrome is not a part of autism spectrum disorder, the reason behind this claim is that Rett or Rex Syndrome is a disorder that mostly occurs in females whereas autism affects mostly males.
Children suffering from this syndrome show loss of muscle tone, diminished eye contact, and crawling or walking problems, they also stop using their hands and often develop stereotyped hand movements such as: wringing, clapping, or patting their hands. Kids diagnosed with Rett or Rex Syndrome loses the ability to perform motor skills.
C) Childhood Disintegrative Disorder (CDD):
This disorder occurs a little late in the child’s life, first the child seems perfectly normal then by the age of 2-4 years they start to regress, where they stop socializing with people, loss potty-training skills, stop playing, and stop making friends. The difference between autism and CDD is the long period of normal development below age 2. (Bock & Stauth, 1999)
D) Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS):
A child that exhibits some but not all of the classic autism symptoms is said to have PDD-NOS.
Children with PDD-NOS either do not fully meet the criteria of symptoms used to diagnose any of the four specific types of autism or do not have the degree of impairment described in any of the above four specific types.
Causes of Autism
Until this very day no one knows what the exact cause of autism is the only thing that is clear is that autism affects 1 of 150 kids.
The brain contains over 100 billion nerve cells called neurons. Each neuron may have hundreds or thousands of connections that carry massages to other nerve cells in the brain and body. The connections and the chemical messengers (called neurotransmitters) let the neurons that help you see, move, remember, and work together as they should, but for some reason some of the cells and connections in the brain of a kid with autism –especially those that affect communication, emotion, and senses- don’t develop properly or get damaged. Scientists are still trying to understand how and why this happens .
Is lack of a mother’s affection a cause for autism?
While the definite causes of autism is not yet found or clear, it is clear that there is no any connection between bad parenting or having a cold mother and the development of autism.
At first Dr. Leo Kanner, the psychiatrist who first described autism as a unique condition in 1943, believed that it was caused by cold, unloving mothers. Bruno Bettelheim, a renowned professor of child development supported this misinterpretation of autism. Their promotion of the idea that unloving mothers caused their children’s autism created a generation of parents who carried the tremendous burden of guilt for their children’s disability.
In the 1960s and 70s, Dr. Bernard Remand, the father of a son with autism, who later founded the Autism Society of America and the Autism Research Institute, helped the medical community understand that autism is not caused by cold parents but rather is a biological disorder.
The diagnosis of Autism
There are no any biological tests that can be done to detect if a child is suffering from autism or not, the diagnosis of autism depends solely on observation and also educational and psychological testing.
An autism-specific screening tool, such as the Modified Checklist of Autism in Toddlers (MCHAT) should be used. The MCHAT is a list of simple questions about the child. The answers determine whether he or she should be referred to a specialist, usually a Developmental Pediatrician, a Neurologist, a Psychiatrist or a Psychologist, for further evaluation.
What do doctors do?
Often, specialists work together as a team to figure out what is wrong. The team might include a pediatrician, a pediatric neurologist, a pediatric develop- mentalist, a child psychiatrist, a child psychologist, speech and language therapists, and others. The team members study how the child plays, learns, communicates, and behaves. The team listens carefully to what parents have noticed, too. Using the information they have gathered doctors can decide whether a child has autism or not.
DSM-IV criteria for a diagnosis of Autism:
A total of six (or more) items from heading (A), (B), and (C), with at least two from (A), and one each from (B) and (C):
(A) Qualitative impairment in social interaction, as manifested by at least two of the following:
• Marked impairments in the use of multiple nonverbal behaviors such as eye-to- eye gaze, facial expression, body posture, and gestures to regulate social interaction.
• Failure to develop peer relationships appropriate to developmental level.
• A lack of spontaneous seeking to share enjoyment, interests, or achievements with other people, (e.g., by a lack of showing, bringing, or pointing out objects of interest to other people).
• A lack of social or emotional reciprocity.
(B) Qualitative impairments in communication as manifested by at least one of the following:
• Delay in or total lack of, the development of spoken language (not accompanied by an attempt to compensate through alternative modes of communication such as gesture or mime).
• In individuals with adequate speech, marked impairment in the ability to initiate or sustain a conversation with others.
• Stereotyped and repetitive use of language or idiosyncratic language.
• Lack of varied, spontaneous make-believe play or social imitative play appropriate to developmental level.
(C) Restricted repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior, interests and activities, as manifested by at least two of the following:
• Encompassing preoccupation with one or more stereotyped and restricted patterns of interest that is abnormal either in intensity or focus.
• Apparently inflexible adherence to specific, nonfunctional routines or rituals.
• Stereotyped and repetitive motor mannerisms (e.g. Hand or finger flapping or twisting, or complex whole-body movements).
• Persistent preoccupation with parts of objects.
II. Delays or abnormal functioning in at least one of the following areas, with onset prior to age 3 years:
(A) Social interaction.
(B) Language is used in social communication.
(C) Symbolic or imaginative play.
III. The disturbance is not better accounted for by Rett’s Disorder or Childhood Disintegrative Disorder.
 (diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders , fourth edition)
Treatments used to cure clients diagnosed with Autism
There is no cure for autism but there are treatments that will help reduce the intense of the disorder and help the child and the family cope with the disorder.
Treatment for autism is a very intensive, comprehensive undertaking that involves the child’s entire family and a team of professionals. Some programs may take place in the child’s home with professionals and trained therapists and may include Parent Training for the child under supervision of a professional. Some programs are delivered in a specialized center, classroom or preschool.
There are many therapies and treatments for autism here are some of the most common ones  :
Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA)
Pivotal Response Therapy (PRT)
Relationship Development Intervention
Autism in Oman
As mention in the beginning of the report the main objective from this report is to spread introduce the “Autism Spectrum Disorder” to the Omani people, because after a field research that was made in Oman on children suffering from autism the number 4000,200,1, and 0 was the result of this research.
What does 4000, 200, 1, and 0 stand for?
4000 = number cases of autism in Oman.
200 = number of cases diagnosed in Oman.
1 = number of child psychiatry clinic in Oman.
0 = the future number of undiagnosed cases of autism in Oman.
After reading and understanding the above number it is belived that no more words or discussion is need accept:
“There is a problem you are the solution. There is a dream, you make it real”
Dr. Yahya Al-Farsi
Autism Spectrum Disorder is a very scary developmental disorder that deserves special attention, and having as much knowledge about this disorder makes it easier to notice it and diagnosing it earlier and this will help lower the risk of it becoming a sever and un-curable disorder.